IGDB.NSCLC Gene View
 
Gene Information        (help)
Gene CHEK2 Ensembl ENSG00000183765 Chromosome 22 Start 27413731 End 27467822
Description Serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk2 (EC 2.7.11.1)(Cds1) [Source:UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot;Acc:O96017]
GENE RESOURCES :NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES :PROTEIN RESOURCES :CLINICAL RESOURCES :REFERENCES :
     HGNC : 16627
     Entrez Gene : 11200
     UCSC : uc003adt.1
     GeneCards : 16627
     RefSeq : NM_001005735
     CCDS : CCDS13843.1
     Uniprot : Q9UGF0
     Interpro : Q9UGF0
     OMIM : 604373
     GeneTests : CHEK2
     CGAP : CHEK2
     PMID : 9836640

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Experimental Evidence        (help)
Expression Sample Number Method Clinical information PubMed Reference
down 8/46(17%) IHC- 15125777 Mol Cancer. 2004 May 4;3:14.

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Microarray Gene Expression Fold Change Result        (help)
( red: up-regulation / green : down-regulation when p value < 0.01)
( gray background : these probesets might have mapping problems. ref 1, ref 2)
Chip Type Probeset Adenocarcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Fold Change p value q value Fold Change p value q value
 HG_U95  37887_at  0.93  2.65e-6  1.57e-5  1.93  2.36e-11  3.57e-10
 HG_U133A  210416_s_at  0.52  1.60e-14  8.32e-14  3.17  1.26e-108  1.08e-107
 HG_U133_Plus2  210416_s_at  0.82  6.41e-10  4.60e-9  1.57  1.25e-28  4.85e-27
 Stanford  5899  0.73  7.29e-3  5.24e-2  1.03  1.24e-2  8.02e-2
 Agilent_HS_21.6K  15579  0.36  3.64e-4  3.39e-3  0.60  2.30e-8  6.18e-7

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Adjuvant Cisplatin/vinorelbine Treatment vs Observation Result        (help) (Pubmed)
( red: up-regulation / green : down-regulation when p value < 0.01)
( gray background color : the mapping problems of probeset. ref_1, ref_2)
Chip Type Probeset Adenocarcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Fold Change p value q value Fold Change p value q value
 HG_U133A  210416_s_at  -0.14  5.66e-1  9.43e-1  -0.08  6.76e-1  1.00e+0

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Microarray Sample Data        (help)
( The log2 value of tumor samples )
(Average : Average log2 value from Normal Samples.)
        HG_U95 - 37887_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133A - 210416_s_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133_Plus2 - 210416_s_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        Stanford - 5899    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        Agilent_HS_21.6K - 15579    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

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Cancer Gene Index        (help)

If 0 entry was found, please remove the search key "lung cancer".
Keyword DiseaseData Statement PubMed Organism
chk2 breast cancer Concomitant inactivation of p53 and Chk2 in breast cancer. 11857075 Human
rad53 breast cancer The structure and expression of the human Rad53 homologue Chk2 was analysed in breast cancer. 11857075 Human
chk2 breast cancer The structure and expression of the human Rad53 homologue Chk2 was analysed in breast cancer. 11857075 Human
chk2 brca1-associated breast cancers Somatic Chk2 coding mutations were detected in 7/141 cases, these occurring in 4/18 BRCA1-associated breast cancers, 1/78 sporadic breast cancers and 2/25 typical medullary carcinomas. 11857075 Human
chk2 sporadic breast cancers Somatic Chk2 coding mutations were detected in 7/141 cases, these occurring in 4/18 BRCA1-associated breast cancers, 1/78 sporadic breast cancers and 2/25 typical medullary carcinomas. 11857075 Human
chk2 cancer Each of the BRCA1-associated cancers with Chk2 mutations also contained mutations in p53, whereas the single sporadic cancer with Chk2 mutation was wild-type for p53. 11857075 Human
chk2 cancers Each of the BRCA1-associated cancers with Chk2 mutations also contained mutations in p53, whereas the single sporadic cancer with Chk2 mutation was wild-type for p53. 11857075 Human
chk2 breast carcinomas Expression of Chk2 was ubiquitously detected in normal ductal epithelium of the breast, but there was loss of expression in a significant proportion of breast carcinomas, and this occurred in cancers both with and without p53 mutation. 11857075 Human
chk2 cancers Expression of Chk2 was ubiquitously detected in normal ductal epithelium of the breast, but there was loss of expression in a significant proportion of breast carcinomas, and this occurred in cancers both with and without p53 mutation. 11857075 Human
chk2 cancers A CpG island was identified 5' of the Chk2 transcriptional start site, but there was no evidence of cytosine methylation in any of the cancers with down-regulated Chk2 expression. 11857075 Human
chk2 early-onset breast cancer Analysis of the germ-line of 45 individuals with hereditary or early onset breast cancer revealed wild-type Chk2 sequence in all cases. 11857075 Human
chk2 sporadic breast carcinomas Thus, despite the rarity of somatic mutations in Chk2 in sporadic breast carcinomas, our results nevertheless reveal that concomitant loss of function in Chk2 (via down-regulation of expression) and p53 (via mutation) occurs in a proportion of sporadic ca 11857075 Human
chk2 hereditary breast cancers However, consistent with other studies, we show that germ-line mutations in Chk2 are unlikely to account for a significant proportion of non BRCA1-, non BRCA2-associated hereditary breast cancers. 11857075 Human
chk2 squamous-cell carcinomas The two squamous cell carcinomas with mutations in CHK2 also expressed mutant p53. 11875739 Human
chk2 cancer Consistent with this observation, no cancer exhibited loss of CHK2 expression at mRNA or protein level. 11875739 Human
chk2 human gastric carcinomas Increased expression of CHK2 in human gastric carcinomas harboring p53 mutations. 11948492 Human
chk2 human gastric carcinomas To clarify the relation between the expression of Chk1/Chk2 and p53 gene status in human gastric carcinomas, we examined expression of Chk1, Chk2 and p53 proteins in 87 gastric carcinomas by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. 11948492 Human
chk2 gastric carcinomas To clarify the relation between the expression of Chk1/Chk2 and p53 gene status in human gastric carcinomas, we examined expression of Chk1, Chk2 and p53 proteins in 87 gastric carcinomas by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. 11948492 Human
chk2 gastric carcinomas We also found that 7 of 11 (78%) gastric carcinomas expressed elevated levels of Chk2 had p53 mutation, and this correlation was significant (p = 0.0157). 11948492 Human
chk2 gastric carcinomas We used a highly quantitative 5' nuclease fluorogenic RT-PCR method (TaqMan) to analyze the expression of Chk2 mRNA in 22 gastric carcinomas. 11948492 Human
chk2 gastric carcinomas Chk2 mRNA expression was higher in gastric carcinomas with p53 mutations compared to those harboring wild-type p53. 11948492 Human
chk2 gastric carcinomas Our findings support the hypothesis that expression of Chk2 protein is increased in gastric carcinomas with mutant p53. 11948492 Human
chk2 human gastric carcinomas Chk1 and Chk2 may play important roles in the checkpoint function in human gastric carcinomas harboring p53 mutation when their functions are preserved to prevent cell cycle progression. 11948492 Human
chk2 hematopoietic neoplasms Mutations of Chk2 in primary hematopoietic neoplasms. 11949635 Human
chek2 contralateral breast cancer These results warrant prolonged medical surveillance and may indicate a clinically important interaction between CHEK2 heterozygosity and radiation in the development of contralateral breast cancer. 14997059 Human
chk2 breast cancer To find additional genes conferring susceptibility to breast cancer, we analyzed CHEK2 (also known as CHK2), which encodes a cell-cycle checkpoint kinase that is implicated in DNA repair processes involving BRCA1 and p53 (refs 3,4,5). 11967536 Human
chek2 breast cancer To find additional genes conferring susceptibility to breast cancer, we analyzed CHEK2 (also known as CHK2), which encodes a cell-cycle checkpoint kinase that is implicated in DNA repair processes involving BRCA1 and p53 (refs 3,4,5). 11967536 Human
chek2 breast cancer This suggests that the biological mechanisms underlying the elevated risk of breast cancer in CHEK2 mutation carriers are already subverted in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, which is consistent with participation of the encoded proteins in the same 11967536 Human
chk2 tumor Structural and functional versatility of the FHA domain in DNA-damage signaling by the tumor suppressor kinase Chk2. 12049740 Human
chk2 breast carcinoma Mutation analysis of the CHK2 gene in breast carcinoma and other cancers. 12052256 Human
chk2 other cancers Mutation analysis of the CHK2 gene in breast carcinoma and other cancers. 12052256 Human
chk2 breast tumors METHODS: We screened 139 breast tumors for loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 22q, using seven microsatellite markers, and screened 119 breast tumors with single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing for mutations in the CHK2 gene. 12052256 Human
chk2 tumors These samples and 45 tumors from individuals carrying the BRCA2 999del5 mutation were screened for mutations in the CHK2 gene. 12052256 Human
chk2 breast tumors CONCLUSION: We conclude that somatic CHK2 mutations are rare in breast cancer, but our results suggest a tumor suppressor function for CHK2 in a small proportion of breast tumors. 12052256 Human
chk2 breast cancer CONCLUSION: We conclude that somatic CHK2 mutations are rare in breast cancer, but our results suggest a tumor suppressor function for CHK2 in a small proportion of breast tumors. 12052256 Human
chk2 tumor CONCLUSION: We conclude that somatic CHK2 mutations are rare in breast cancer, but our results suggest a tumor suppressor function for CHK2 in a small proportion of breast tumors. 12052256 Human
chk2 tumor Furthermore, our results suggest that the T59K CHK2 sequence variant is a low-penetrance allele with respect to tumor growth. 12052256 Human
chek2 familial breast cancer A CHEK2 genetic variant contributing to a substantial fraction of familial breast cancer. 12094328 Human
chek2 cancer A protein-truncating mutation, 1100delC in exon 10, which abolishes the kinase function of CHEK2, has been found in families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and in those with a cancer phenotype that is suggestive of LFS, including breast cancer. 12094328 Human
chek2 breast cancer A protein-truncating mutation, 1100delC in exon 10, which abolishes the kinase function of CHEK2, has been found in families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and in those with a cancer phenotype that is suggestive of LFS, including breast cancer. 12094328 Human
chek2 breast tumors Finally, tissue microarray analysis indicated that breast tumors from patients with 1100delC mutations show reduced CHEK2 immunostaining. 12094328 Human
chek2 breast cancer The results suggest that CHEK2 acts as a low-penetrance tumor-suppressor gene in breast cancer and that it makes a significant contribution to familial clustering of breast cancer-including families with only two affected relatives, which are more common 12094328 Human
chk2 tumors Unlike ATM(-/-) and p53(-/-) mice, Chk2(-/-) mice do not spontaneously develop tumors, although Chk2 does suppress 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced skin tumors. 12192050 Mouse
chk2 myelodysplastic syndromes Analysis of CHK2 in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. 12363465 Human
chk2 human colon carcinoma We found that in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells, IR treatment enhanced Chk2 kinase activity, whereas Chk1 activity remained unchanged, which suggested that UCN-01 may interrupt IR-induced p53 response by inhibiting Chk2 kinase. 12384533 Human
chek2 breast cancer Second, in breast cancer genetics, CHEK2 was identified as one of what are likely to be many low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes. 12409647 Human
chk2 tumors To determine the potential role of CHK2 alterations in the pathogenesis of lymphoid neoplasms we have examined the gene status, protein, and mRNA expression in a series of tumors and nonneoplastic lymphoid samples. 12393693 Human
chk2 neoplasms To determine the potential role of CHK2 alterations in the pathogenesis of lymphoid neoplasms we have examined the gene status, protein, and mRNA expression in a series of tumors and nonneoplastic lymphoid samples. 12393693 Human
chk2 tumors CHK2 protein and mRNA expression levels were similar in all types of lymphomas and reactive samples, and these levels were independent of the proliferative activity of the tumors. 12393693 Human
chk2 large-cell lymphomas However, 5 tumors, one typical MCL, 2 blastoid MCLs, and 2 large cell lymphomas, showed marked loss of protein expression, including 2 samples with complete absence of CHK2 protein. 12393693 Human
chk2 tumors However, 5 tumors, one typical MCL, 2 blastoid MCLs, and 2 large cell lymphomas, showed marked loss of protein expression, including 2 samples with complete absence of CHK2 protein. 12393693 Human
chk2 tumors The high number of chromosomal imbalances in tumors with complete absence of CHK2 protein suggests a role of this gene in chromosomal instability in human lymphomas. 12393693 Human
chek2 breast cancer CHEK2 variants in susceptibility to breast cancer and evidence of retention of the wild type allele in tumours. 12454775 Human
chek2 tumours CHEK2 variants in susceptibility to breast cancer and evidence of retention of the wild type allele in tumours. 12454775 Human
chek2 breast cancer To investigate if other CHEK2 variants confer an increased risk of breast cancer, we have screened an affected individual with breast cancer from 68 breast cancer families. 12454775 Human
chek2 breast cancer This study provides further evidence that sequence variation in CHEK2 is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and implies that tumorigenesis in association with CHEK2 mutations does not involve loss of the wild type allele. 12454775 Human
chk2 cancer Interestingly, in cancer cell lines expressing mutant p53, 53BP1 was localized to distinct nuclear foci and ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 at Thr 68 was detected, even in the absence of irradiation. 12447382 Human
chk2 tumour In addition, Chk2 was phosphorylated at Thr 68 in more than 50% of surgically resected lung and breast tumour specimens from otherwise untreated patients [corrected]. 12447382 Human
chk2 cancer We conclude that the constitutive activation of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway may be linked to the high frequency of p53 mutations in human cancer, as p53 is a downstream target of Chk2 and ATM. 12447382 Human
chk2 tumor CHK2: a tumor suppressor or not? 12548013 Human
chk2 acute myeloid leukemias Mutation analysis of the DNA-damage checkpoint gene CHK2 in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemias. 11248330 Human
chk2 myelodysplastic syndromes Mutation analysis of the DNA-damage checkpoint gene CHK2 in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemias. 11248330 Human
chk2 tumor The CHK2 may be a tumor suppressor gene because it was found to be mutated in some individuals with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. 11248330 Human
chk2 myelodysplastic syndrome We performed a mutational analysis of the CHK2 gene using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in 41 bone marrow samples from individuals with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 41 samples of acute myeloid leukemias 11248330 Human
chk2 tumour These results support Chk2 as a candidate tumour suppressor, and identify the ATM-Chk2-Cdc25A-Cdk2 pathway as a genomic integrity checkpoint that prevents radioresistant DNA synthesis. 11298456 Human
chk2 cancer Recently, heterozygous germline mutations in Chk2 have been identified in a subset of patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a highly penetrant familial cancer phenotype, suggesting that Chk2 is a tumor suppressor gene. 11053450 Human
chk2 tumor Recently, heterozygous germline mutations in Chk2 have been identified in a subset of patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a highly penetrant familial cancer phenotype, suggesting that Chk2 is a tumor suppressor gene. 11053450 Human
chk2 cancer Additionally, we have shown that Chk2 can also be inactivated by down-regulation of its expression in cancer cells. 11053450 Human
chk2 tumor The Chk2 kinase is a tumor suppressor and key transducer of DNA-damage checkpoints. 11431331 Human
chk2 human lung cancer Reduced expression and impaired kinase activity of a Chk2 mutant identified in human lung cancer. 11454675 Human
chk2 human lung cancer Recently, we found a somatic mutation of CHK2 with clear loss of the wild-type allele in human lung cancer. 11454675 Human
chk2 cancer These findings confirm that the DNA damage checkpoint pathway involving CHK2 is indeed inactivated in this fatal adult cancer and also suggest that reduced expression of Chk2 may also be an important inactivating mechanism, contributing to the development 11454675 Human
chk2 lung cancer These findings confirm that the DNA damage checkpoint pathway involving CHK2 is indeed inactivated in this fatal adult cancer and also suggest that reduced expression of Chk2 may also be an important inactivating mechanism, contributing to the development 11454675 Human
chk2 hereditary breast cancer Mutation analysis of the CHK2 gene in families with hereditary breast cancer. 11461078 Human
chk2 breast cancer Recently CHK2 was functionally linked to the p53 pathway, and mutations in these two genes seem to result in a similar Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) or Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (LFL) multi-cancer phenotype frequently including breast cancer. 11461078 Human
chk2 breast cancer As CHK2 has been found to bind and regulate BRCA1, the product of one of the 2 known major susceptibility genes to hereditary breast cancer, it also more directly makes CHK2 a suitable candidate gene for hereditary predisposition to breast cancer. 11461078 Human
chk2 hereditary breast cancer As CHK2 has been found to bind and regulate BRCA1, the product of one of the 2 known major susceptibility genes to hereditary breast cancer, it also more directly makes CHK2 a suitable candidate gene for hereditary predisposition to breast cancer. 11461078 Human
chk2 hereditary breast cancer Here we have screened 79 Finnish hereditary breast cancer families for germline CHK2 alterations. 11461078 Human
chk2 breast cancer The high Ile(157)--> Thr(157)mutation frequency (6.5%) observed in healthy controls and the lack of other mutations suggest that CHK2 does not contribute significantly to the hereditary breast cancer or LFL-associated breast cancer risk, at least not in t 11461078 Human
chk2 hereditary breast cancer The high Ile(157)--> Thr(157)mutation frequency (6.5%) observed in healthy controls and the lack of other mutations suggest that CHK2 does not contribute significantly to the hereditary breast cancer or LFL-associated breast cancer risk, at least not in t 11461078 Human
chk2 cancer p53, CHK2, and CHK1 genes in Finnish families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome: further evidence of CHK2 in inherited cancer predisposition. 11479205 Human
chk2 cancer The cancer phenotype in the CHK2-families was not characteristic of LFS, and may indicate variable phenotypic expression in the rare families with CHK2 mutations. 11479205 Human
chk2 cancer Here we report that in human cells, Chk2 and p53 form protein-protein complexes whose abundance increased upon DNA damage, and whose formation was abrogated through cancer associated mutations in the FHA domain of Chk2, or mutations in the tetramerization 11571648 Human
chk2 colon cancer Whereas among Li-Fraumeni syndrome families mutations of Chk2 or p53 occur in a mutually exclusive manner, we document that the colon cancer cell line HCT-15 concomitantly lacks functions of both Chk2 and p53, the latter demonstrated by a non-invasive rep 11571648 Human
chk2 tumour These results provide new mechanistic insights into the Chk2-p53 interplay, suggest how mutations in Chk2 may abrogate its tumour suppressor function, and indicate that compared with individual defects in either Chk2 or p53, concomitant mutations in both 11571648 Human
chk2 tumours Chk2 tumour suppressor protein in human spermatogenesis and testicular germ-cell tumours. 11593395 Human
chk2 tumour Chk2 tumour suppressor protein in human spermatogenesis and testicular germ-cell tumours. 11593395 Human
chk2 tumour Chk2 is a transducer of DNA damage signals and a tumour suppressor whose germ-line mutations predispose to diverse tumour types. 11593395 Human
chk2 tumours Unlike its downstream targets such as the p53 tumour suppressor, the expression patterns of Chk2 in tissues and tumours remain unknown. 11593395 Human
chk2 tumour Unlike its downstream targets such as the p53 tumour suppressor, the expression patterns of Chk2 in tissues and tumours remain unknown. 11593395 Human
chk2 testicular cancer As DNA breaks occur commonly during gametogenesis, and p53 is wild-type and overexpressed in testicular cancer, we examined abundance and localisation of the Chk2 protein during normal development of human testes, and at various stages of germ-cell tumour 11593395 Human
chk2 tumour As DNA breaks occur commonly during gametogenesis, and p53 is wild-type and overexpressed in testicular cancer, we examined abundance and localisation of the Chk2 protein during normal development of human testes, and at various stages of germ-cell tumour 11593395 Human
chk2 teratoma High levels of Chk2 are detected in the majority of GCTs including all pre-invasive carcinoma-in-situ lesions, contrary to variable expression and even lack of Chk2 in subsets of invasive GCTs and some teratoma structures, respectively. 11593395 Human
chk2 breast cancer BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for approximately 50% of breast cancer families with more than four affected cases, whereas exonic mutations in p53, PTEN, CHK2 and ATM may account for a very small proportion. 11597326 Human
chk2 lymphoid malignancies Analysis of the CHK2 gene in lymphoid malignancies. 11699418 Human
chk2 tumor Recently, the human homolog of the checkpoint kinase Cds1 (CHK2) has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene. 11699418 Human
cds1 tumor Recently, the human homolog of the checkpoint kinase Cds1 (CHK2) has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene. 11699418 Human
chk2 lymphoid malignancies Therefore, we analyzed the DNA from 143 lymphoid malignancies to determine whether they had mutations of the CHK2 gene. 11699418 Human
chk2 tumor Both 1100delC and R145W germ-line mutations in CHK2 are associated with loss of the wild-type allele in the corresponding tumor specimens, and neither tumor harbors a somatic TP53 mutation. 11719428 Human
chk2 tumor Germline mutations in Chk2 have been identified in a subset of patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, suggesting that Chk2 is a tumor suppressor gene. 11728459 Human
chk2 cancers Defects in Chk2 contribute to the development of both hereditary and sporadic human cancers, and earmark this kinase as a candidate tumour suppressor and an attractive target for drug discovery. 11733767 Human
chk2 melanoma Distinct Chk2 activation pathways are triggered by genistein and DNA-damaging agents in human melanoma cells. 10809772 Human
chk2 small-cell lung cancer Histological type-selective, tumor-predominant expression of a novel CHK1 isoform and infrequent in vivo somatic CHK2 mutation in small cell lung cancer. 10987268 Human
chk2 lung cancer We examined 44 lung cancer specimens to search for mutations in the CHK1 and CHK2 genes, which have been suggested to play roles in regulating p53 after DNA damage. 10987268 Human
chk2 lung cancer We found that the CHK2 gene was somatically mutated in lung cancer in vivo, although at a low frequency, and that a previously undescribed shorter isoform of CHK1 was expressed preferentially in small cell lung cancer in a tumor-predominant manner. 10987268 Human
chk2 familial gastric cancer Absence of germline CHK2 mutations in familial gastric cancer. 11011113 Human
chk2 gastric cancer Gastric cancer is often clustered in families with LFS, so it is possible that germline CHK2 mutation is also present in familial gastric cancer (FGC). 11011113 Human
chk2 gastric cancer Thus, it was indicated that germline CHK2 mutations do not contribute to the familial clustering of gastric cancer. 11011113 Human
chek2 familial breast cancer The frame-shifting mutation 1100delC in the cell-cycle-checkpoint kinase 2 gene (CHEK2) has been reported to be associated with familial breast cancer in families in which mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were excluded. 14678969 Human
chek2 breast tumors We studied CHEK2 protein expression in 111, and loss of heterozygosity at CHEK2 in 88 breast tumors from these patients. 14678969 Human
rad53 cancer Here we demonstrate that a human homolog of Cds1/Rad53 kinase (hCds1) is rapidly phosphorylated and activated in response to DNA damage not only in normal cells but in cancer cells lacking functional p53. 10531348 Human
cds1 cancer Here we demonstrate that a human homolog of Cds1/Rad53 kinase (hCds1) is rapidly phosphorylated and activated in response to DNA damage not only in normal cells but in cancer cells lacking functional p53. 10531348 Human
chk2 cancer Our results clearly indicate that the specific abrogation of the cell cycle G2 checkpoint is a feasible strategy for cancer therapy, and hChk1 and Chk2/HuCds1 are proper targets for that purpose. 10606229 Human
hucds1 cancer Our results clearly indicate that the specific abrogation of the cell cycle G2 checkpoint is a feasible strategy for cancer therapy, and hChk1 and Chk2/HuCds1 are proper targets for that purpose. 10606229 Human
chk2 breast cancer Together, these data suggest a functional link between recombination control and breast cancer predisposition in carriers of Chk2 and BRCA1 germ line mutations. 14701743 Human
chk2 cancer Chk1 and Chk2 kinases in checkpoint control and cancer. 12781359 Human
chk2 tumor Here, we discuss the emerging roles of the mammalian Chk1 and Chk2 kinases as key signal transducers within the complex network of genome integrity checkpoints, as candidate tumor suppressors disrupted in sporadic as well as some hereditary malignancies a 12781359 Human
chk2 tumor Human Chk2 is a newly identified tumor suppressor protein involved in signaling pathways in response to DNA damage. 14623252 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer CHEK2 1100delC and colorectal cancer. 14569133 Human
chek2 prostate cancer A novel founder CHEK2 mutation is associated with increased prostate cancer risk. 15087378 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Variants in the CHEK2 have been found to be associated with prostate cancer risk in the United States and Finland. 15087378 Human
chek2 prostate cancer We sequenced CHEK2 gene in 140 Polish patients with prostate cancer and then genotyped the three detected variants in a larger series of prostate cancer cases and controls. 15087378 Human
chek2 prostate cancer CHEK2 truncating mutations (IVS2 + 1G>A or 1100delC) were identified in 9 of 1921 controls (0.5%) and in 11 of 690 (1.6%) unselected patients with prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 3.4; P = 0.004]. 15087378 Human
chek2 prostate cancers Loss of the wild-type CHEK2 allele was not observed in any of prostate cancers from five men who carried CHEK2-truncating mutations. 15087378 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Our results provide evidence that the two truncating mutations of CHEK2 confer a moderate risk of prostate cancer in Polish men and that the missense change appears to confer a modest risk. 15087378 Human
chk2 cancer These findings place CHK2 in the middle of a pathway frequently targeted in cancer. 11746983 Human
chk2 cancers Because of this, and the observation that CHK2 mutations are inherited in some Li-Fraumeni cancer syndrome families, we decided to examine the role of CHK2 mutations in sporadic cancers. 11746983 Human
chk2 breast cancers Exploiting the genomic sequence of chromosome 22, we looked for mutations in the exons and intron junctions of the CHK2 gene in DNA samples from 170 patients (57 osteosarcomas, 25 other sarcomas, 35 nonsmall-cell lung, 20 ovarian, and 33 breast cancers). 11746983 Human
chk2 tumor These findings of CHK2 gene mutations are consistent with osteosarcoma being a defining tumor of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. 11746983 Human
chk2 cancers The occurrence of CHK2 mutations in sporadic cancers emphasizes the importance of the stress pathway which includes TP53. 11746983 Human
chk2 cancer While screening for germline CHK2 mutations in cancer cases by heteroduplex CSGE, we observed that additional PCR fragments were generated from the 3' end region of the gene that includes exons 11-14. 11793476 Human
chk2 cancers Chk2 is a serine/threonine protein kinase found mutated in certain hereditary and sporadic cancers. 12805407 Human
chek2 male breast cancer CHEK2 1100delC is not a risk factor for male breast cancer population. 14648717 Human
chk2 breast cancer A 1100delC mutation in CHEK2 (previously known as CHK2), a cell-cycle checkpoint kinase, has been implicated in predisposition of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and breast cancer in families suggestive of LFS. 14648717 Human
chek2 breast cancer A 1100delC mutation in CHEK2 (previously known as CHK2), a cell-cycle checkpoint kinase, has been implicated in predisposition of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and breast cancer in families suggestive of LFS. 14648717 Human
chek2 male breast cancer Our results indicate that CHEK2 1100delC variant does not substantially increase the risk of male breast cancer at the population level. 14648717 Human
chek2 male breast cancers We cannot exclude the fact that a small fraction of hereditary, family-positive male breast cancers could be attributable to CHEK2 mutations. 14648717 Human
chek2 cancer Studies such as those on APC I1307K and CHEK2 1100delC may suggest the way forward for the identification of 'breast-colon cancer' genes. 14574178 Human
chek2 breast cancer Previous studies of families with multiple cases of breast cancer have indicated that a frameshift alteration in the CHEK2 gene, 1100delC, is associated with an elevated frequency of breast cancer in such families, but the risk associated with the variant 15122511 Human
chk2 cancers As mutations in human chk2 were linked to several cancers, these similarities point to the usefulness of the Drosophila model system. 12663536 Human
chek2 sporadic prostate cancer Recently, variants in CHEK2 gene were shown to associate with sporadic prostate cancer in the USA. 14612911 Human
chek2 prostate cancer The results suggest that CHEK2 variants are low-penetrance prostate cancer predisposition alleles that contribute significantly to familial clustering of prostate cancer at the population level. 14612911 Human
chek2 breast cancer The breast cancer low-penetrance allele 1100delC in the CHEK2 gene is not present in Spanish familial breast cancer population. 14618615 Human
chek2 familial breast cancer The breast cancer low-penetrance allele 1100delC in the CHEK2 gene is not present in Spanish familial breast cancer population. 14618615 Human
chek 2 familial breast cancer Recently, the CHEK 2 gene, involved in DNA damage and replication checkpoints, has been pointed out as a good candidate; moreover, a specific variant in this gene,1100delC, has been found to increase breast cancer susceptibility among familial breast canc 14618615 Human
chk2 tumors Chk1 inhibition is expected to lead to chemosensitization of tumors, while Chk2 inhibition could protect normal sensitive tissues from some chemotherapeutic agents. 14593735 Human
chek2 breast cancer A rare, protein truncating mutation in the CHEK2 gene has recently been shown to confer a modest risk of breast cancer. 12917215 Human
chek2 breast cancer The aim of this study was to determine whether common polymorphic variants in CHEK2 are associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. 12917215 Human
chek2 breast cancer We conclude that the CHEK2 polymorphisms IVS + 1a and a1013g do not confer an increased risk of breast cancer. 12917215 Human
chek2 carcinoma Contribution of the CHEK2 1100delC variant to risk of multiple colorectal adenoma and carcinoma. 14568168 Human
chek2 colorectal adenoma Contribution of the CHEK2 1100delC variant to risk of multiple colorectal adenoma and carcinoma. 14568168 Human
chek2 cancer Germline variation in CHEK2 has recently been shown to confer cancer susceptibility. 14568168 Human
chek2 prostate cancers Furthermore, the CHEK2 1100delC variant carried by 1% of the population has been shown to act as a low penetrance allele for both breast and prostate cancers. 14568168 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer To further our knowledge about the contribution of CHEK2 1100delC to cancer incidence we have analysed a series of 149 patients with multiple colorectal adenomas some of whom developed colorectal cancer. 14568168 Human
chek2 cancer To further our knowledge about the contribution of CHEK2 1100delC to cancer incidence we have analysed a series of 149 patients with multiple colorectal adenomas some of whom developed colorectal cancer. 14568168 Human
chek2 colorectal adenomas To further our knowledge about the contribution of CHEK2 1100delC to cancer incidence we have analysed a series of 149 patients with multiple colorectal adenomas some of whom developed colorectal cancer. 14568168 Human
chek2 breast and ovarian cancer BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 (1100 del C) germline mutations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families in South India. 14507240 Human
chek2 ovarian cancer This study describes the use of DHPLC for mutation analysis for BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 (1100delC) in 22 patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and early onset breast cancer (<35 years of age). 14507240 Human
chek2 early-onset breast cancer This study describes the use of DHPLC for mutation analysis for BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 (1100delC) in 22 patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and early onset breast cancer (<35 years of age). 14507240 Human
chek2 breast-ovarian cancer This is the first study from South India, on BRCA1, BRCA2 & CHEK2 (1100 del C) mutations in patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and early onset breast/ovarian cancer, using the sensitive DHPLC approach. 14507240 Human
chek2 ovarian cancer This is the first study from South India, on BRCA1, BRCA2 & CHEK2 (1100 del C) mutations in patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and early onset breast/ovarian cancer, using the sensitive DHPLC approach. 14507240 Human
chk2 colon carcinoma In another, completely different model of mitotic catastrophe, namely 14.3.3 sigma-deficient HCT116 colon carcinoma cells treated with doxorubicin, Chk2 activation was also found to be deficient as compared to 14.3.3 sigma-sufficient controls. 15048074 Human
chk2 cancer Ionizing radiation also triggered the phosphorylation and subsequent down-regulation of Chk2 in human colorectal HCT116 (p53(+/+)) cancer cells; irradiation of its isogenic mutant HCT116 (p53(-/-)) cells, which lack functional p53, induced Chk2 phosphoryl 15044452 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Mutations in CHEK2 associated with prostate cancer risk. 12533788 Human
chek2 prostate cancer In this study, we analyzed CHEK2, the upstream regulator of p53 in the DNA-damage-signaling pathway, in several groups of patients with prostate cancer. 12533788 Human
chek2 familial prostate cancer Additional screening for CHEK2 mutations in 149 families with familial prostate cancer revealed 11 mutations (5 unique) in nine families. 12533788 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Importantly, 16 of 18 unique CHEK2 mutations identified in both sporadic and familial cases were not detected among 423 unaffected men, suggesting a pathological effect of CHEK2 mutations in prostate cancer development. 12533788 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Overall, our data suggest that mutations in CHEK2 may contribute to prostate cancer risk and that the DNA-damage-signaling pathway may play an important role in the development of prostate cancer. 12533788 Human
chk2 spermatocytic seminoma The immunohistochemical expression pattern of Chk2, p53, p19INK4d, MAGE-A4 and other selected antigens provides new evidence for the premeiotic origin of spermatocytic seminoma. 12605640 Human
chk2 spermatocytic seminoma Proteins highly expressed in gonocytes and spermatogonia, such as Chk2, MAGE-A4 and neurone-specific enolase, were consistently present in spermatocytic seminoma. 12605640 Human
chk2 spermatocytic seminoma CONCLUSIONS: The investigation provided new information concerning the expression of Chk2, MAGE-A4, neurone-specific enolase and p19INK4d in spermatocytic seminoma. 12605640 Human
chek2 breast cancer Variants in CHEK2 other than 1100delC do not make a major contribution to breast cancer susceptibility. 12610780 Human
chek2 breast cancer To investigate whether other CHEK2 variants confer susceptibility to breast cancer, we screened the full CHEK2 coding sequence in BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer cases from 89 pedigrees with three or more cases of breast cancer. 12610780 Human
chek2 breast cancer These results indicate that 1100delC may be the only CHEK2 allele that makes an appreciable contribution to breast cancer susceptibility. 12610780 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer The CHEK2 1100delC mutation identifies families with a hereditary breast and colorectal cancer phenotype. 12690581 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer The 1100delC variant of the cell cycle checkpoint kinase CHEK2 gene was present in 18% of 55 families with hereditary breast and colorectal cancer (HBCC) as compared with 4% of 380 families with non-HBCC (P<.001), thus providing genetic evidence for the H 12690581 Human
chk2 tumour Moreover, E2F-1 is resistant to induction by etoposide in tumour cells expressing mutant chk2. 12717439 Human
chk2 acute myeloid leukemia Differential response of human acute myeloid leukemia cells to gemtuzumab ozogamicin in vitro: role of Chk1 and Chk2 phosphorylation and caspase 3. 12576328 Human
chk2 human tumor Furthermore, introduction of Chk2 short interfering RNA into three different human tumor cell lines leads to marked reduction of Chk2 protein, but p53 is still stabilized and active after DNA damage. 12654916 Human
chk2 human tumor Thus, Chk1 and Chk2 are unlikely to be regulators of p53 in at least some human tumor cells. 12654916 Human
chk2 cancer The Chk2 tumor suppressor is not required for p53 responses in human cancer cells. 12654917 Human
chk2 human tumors Our results indicate that Chk2 kinase is not required for p53 activation in human cells and explain why CHK2 and TP53 mutations can jointly occur in human tumors. 12654917 Human
chk2 cancer The response of cancer cells to treatment with anticancer agents is mediated in part by proteins controlling both the cell cycle progression and the genomic integrity, including p53, p73 and checkpoint proteins chk1 and chk2. 14657665 Human
chk2 breast cancer Furthermore, inactivation of Chk2 and Brca1 was cooperative in breast cancer. 15131084 Human
chek2 hereditary breast cancer Limited relevance of the CHEK2 gene in hereditary breast cancer. 15095295 Human
chek2 familial breast cancer To establish the importance of CHEK2 mutations for familial breast cancer incidence in the German population, we have screened all 14 of the coding exons in 516 families negative for mutations in both the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. 15095295 Human
chek2 familial breast cancer The low prevalence and penetrance of the exon 10 deletion mutations together with no, or an uncertain elevation in risk for other CHEK2 mutations suggests a limited relevance for CHEK2 mutations in familial breast cancer. 15095295 Human
chek2 breast cancer BACKGROUND: The 1100delC CHEK2 allele has been associated with a 1.4-4.7 fold increased risk for breast cancer in women carrying this mutation. 12529183 Human
chk2 li-fraumeni cancer syndrome Because of this, and the observation that CHK2 mutations are inherited in some Li-Fraumeni cancer syndrome families, we decided to examine the role of CHK2 mutations in sporadic cancers. 11746983 Human
chek2 endometrial cancer We also found a decreased endometrial cancer risk among non-smoking carriers of a haplotype in ATM (P = 0.0007) and among carriers of a haplotype in CHEK2, who had experienced menopause below 49 years of age (P = 0.0009) compared with non-carriers of thes 17164260 Human
chek2 human breast cancer Allelic variants of CHEK2 contribute to an elevated risk for human breast cancer and possibly other cancer types. 17174984 Human
chek2 breast cancer Mutation 1100delC in CHEK2 gene was shown to be associated with breast cancer in women carrying this mutation. 17380889 Human
chek2 multiple tumors [Analysis of BRCA1/2 and CHEK2 mutations in ovarian cancer and primary multiple tumors involving the ovaries. 17380889 Human
chek2 breast cancer Twenty-five breast cancer patients were heterozygous for one of three CHEK2 gene mutations (I157T, n=13; 1100delC, n=10; IVS2+1G>A, n=2). 17250914 Human
chek2 endometrial cancer In conclusion, it is possible that common variants in the ATM and CHEK2 genes, in interaction with oestrogen-related exposures, are involved in endometrial cancer aetiology. 17164260 Human
chek2 tumours RESULTS: We found no association between any genetic variation in the ATM, CHEK2 or ERBB2 genes and breast cancer survival or the risk of developing tumours with certain characteristics. 17132159 Human
chek2 breast cancer RESULTS: We found no association between any genetic variation in the ATM, CHEK2 or ERBB2 genes and breast cancer survival or the risk of developing tumours with certain characteristics. 17132159 Human
chek2 endometrial cancer Our results indicated an increased risk of developing endometroid endometrial cancer for homozygous carriers of the rare allele (AA) of a tagSNP (rs4987886) in CHEK2 (P = 0.005) when contrasted with GG carriers. 17164260 Human
chek2 breast tumour Comprehensive analysis of the ATM, CHEK2 and ERBB2 genes in relation to breast tumour characteristics and survival: a population-based case-control and follow-up study. 17132159 Human
chek2 cancer Germline mutations in cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) have been associated with a range of cancer types, in particular of the breast and prostate. 17106448 Human
chek2 cancer of the breast Protein-truncating mutations in CHEK2 have been reported to confer higher risks of cancer of the breast and the prostate than the missense I157T variant. 17106448 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer In order to estimate the risks of colorectal cancer associated with truncating and missense CHEK2 mutations, we genotyped 1085 unselected colorectal cancer cases and 5496 controls for four CHEK2 founder mutations present in Poland. 17106448 Human
chek2 breast cancer BACKGROUND: Mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) genes and amplification of the v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB2) gene have been suggested to have an important role in b 17132159 Human
chek2 breast cancer METHODS: We performed a comprehensive haplotype analysis of the ATM, CHEK2 and ERBB2 genes in a Swedish population-based study, which included 1,579 breast cancer cases and 1,516 controls. 17132159 Human
chk2 esophageal carcinoma [Effects of RNA interference on CHK1 and CHK2 expression and G2/M arrest in esophageal carcinoma cell line TE13 after irradiation] BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Cell cycle of tumor cells often changes after irradiation. 17298739 Human
chk2 esophageal carcinoma This study was to observe the effect of RNA interference (RNAi) on mRNA and protein expression of human checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2 and on cell cycle of esophageal carcinoma cell line TE13 after irradiation. 17298739 Human
chk2 breast cancer A total of 165 patients, all of whom had died of breast cancer with duration of survival 12-127 months, median 38 months, were examined using immunohistochemistry for proliferation, apoptosis, p53, phosphorylated p53, p21, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), bcl- 17285125 Human
chk2 tumor [Effects of RNA interference on CHK1 and CHK2 expression and G2/M arrest in esophageal carcinoma cell line TE13 after irradiation] BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Cell cycle of tumor cells often changes after irradiation. 17298739 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer Germline CHEK2 mutations and colorectal cancer risk: different effects of a missense and truncating mutations? 17106448 Human
chek2 cancer For UADT cancer risk, associations were observed for the homozygous carriers of the variant alleles of MGMT L84F [odds ratio (OR) 2.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.20], MGMT 171C > T (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.20-4.17) and OGG1 S326C (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.15 17040931 Human
chek2 endometrial cancer Effect of ATM, CHEK2 and ERBB2 TAGSNPs and haplotypes on endometrial cancer risk. 17164260 Human
chek2 breast cancer CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that common variants in the ATM, CHEK2 or ERBB2 genes are not involved in modifying breast cancer survival or the risk of tumour-characteristic-defined breast cancer. 17132159 Human
chek2 tumours In a Swedish population-based case-control study including 705 cases and 1565 controls, we examined common variation in the ATM, CHEK2 and ERBB2 genes in relation to endometrial cancer risk overall, restricted to tumours of certain characteristics or stra 17164260 Human
chek2 endometrial cancer In a Swedish population-based case-control study including 705 cases and 1565 controls, we examined common variation in the ATM, CHEK2 and ERBB2 genes in relation to endometrial cancer risk overall, restricted to tumours of certain characteristics or stra 17164260 Human
chek2 other cancer Allelic variants of CHEK2 contribute to an elevated risk for human breast cancer and possibly other cancer types. 17174984 Human
chek2 breast cancer CONCLUSION: The CHEK2 1100delC was not significantly increased in Swedish colorectal cancer patients, however, in order to determine the role of the variant in colorectal cancer families with the history of breast cancer a larger sample size is needed. 17214356 Human
chek2 breast cancer Breast cancer in patients carrying a germ-line CHEK2 mutation: Outcome after breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. 17250914 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer CONCLUSION: The CHEK2 1100delC was not significantly increased in Swedish colorectal cancer patients, however, in order to determine the role of the variant in colorectal cancer families with the history of breast cancer a larger sample size is needed. 17214356 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer The CHEK2 1100delC variant in Swedish colorectal cancer. 17214356 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer BACKGROUND: The cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) 1100delC variant has recently been identified at high frequency in families with both breast and colorectal cancer, suggesting the possible role of this variant in colorectal cancer predisposition. 17214356 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the role of CHEK2 ll00delC among Swedish colorectal cancer patients, the variant frequency was determined in 174 selected familial cases, 644 unselected cases and 760 controls, as well as in l8 families used in the genome 17214356 Human
chk2 cancers CHK2 and p53 are frequently mutated in human cancers. 17118344 Human
chk2 ovarian cancer Furthermore, by using ovarian cancer cell lines expressing dominant-negative CHK2 and CHK2-knockout HCT116 cells, we found that CHK2 activation contributes to the control of S and G2/M cell cycle arrests, but not chemosensitivity to irofulven. 17118344 Human
chk2 colorectal cancer In HCT15 colorectal cancer cells corrected for functional Chk2 activity, Wip1 overexpression suppressed the contribution of Chk2 to the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint. 16936775 Human
chek2 colon cancer We studied the effects of p27 and CHEK2 variants on prostate and colon cancer risk in a case-control study. 17372254 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Modest effects on prostate cancer risk were observed for both CHEK2 missense and truncating variants. 17372254 Human
chek2 breast cancer Mutations in CHEK2, ATM, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1, and PALB2 are associated with doubling of breast cancer risks. 17292821 Human
chek2 early-stage breast cancer CONCLUSIONS: Heterozygosity for a germline CHEK2 mutation appears to represent an adverse prognostic factor in patients with early-stage breast cancer. 17250914 Human
chek2 cancer Epistatic relationship between the cancer susceptibility genes CHEK2 and p27. 17372254 Human
chek2 colon cancer The interaction between CHEK2 and p27 was confirmed in a group of patients with colon cancer. 17372254 Human
chek2 colon cancer Thus, it seems that the clinical expression of CHEK2 variant alleles on prostate and colon cancer risk may be restricted to individuals with a specific genotype (VV) of the p27 gene. 17372254 Human
cds1 hyperplastic The frequency of allele G and genotype G/G at position +49 in CDS1 was increased in patients with thymoma when compared with patients with normal and hyperplastic thymic histopathology. 11857062 Human
cds1 cancer [Genes and cancer. CHK2 (CDS1, Rad53): tumor suppressor gene] 12957797 Human
chek2 breast cancer [CHEK2 and breast cancer risk] The BRCA1 et BRCA2 genes are involved in 2/3 of genetic predisposition with major risk of breast cancer. 12495879 Human
chek2 hereditary breast and ovarian cancer BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 (1100 del C) germline mutations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families in South India. 14507240 Human
chek2 breast cancer The CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation plays an irrelevant role in breast cancer predisposition in Italy. 15221794 Human
chek2 breast cancer The CHEK2 1100delC has previously been shown to be a low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility allele. 15239132 Human
chek2 breast cancer We have evaluated the role of another CHEK2 variant, I157T in the FHA domain of the gene, for association with breast cancer. 15239132 Human
chek2 prostate cancer The risk of prostate cancer is known to be elevated in carriers of germline mutations in BRCA2, and possibly also in carriers of BRCA1 and CHEK2 mutations. 15280931 Human
chek2 ovarian cancer Analysis of CHEK2 gene for ovarian cancer susceptibility. 15385111 Human
chek2 breast cancer OBJECTIVES: A deletion variant in the CHEK2 gene (del1100C) has been implicated as a low-penetrance risk factor for breast cancer. 15385111 Human
chek2 ovarian cancer We sought to determine contribution of CHEK2 mutations to the etiology of ovarian cancer (OvCa). 15385111 Human
chek2 contralateral breast cancer Patients with the CHEK2 variant had a more unfavourable prognosis regarding the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer (relative risk (RR) = 5.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67 to 19.65), distant metastasis-free survival (RR = 2.81; 95% CI 1.20 to 15466005 Human
chek2 male breast cancer Analysis of familial male breast cancer for germline mutations in CHEK2. 15488637 Human
chek2 male breast cancer We have previously shown that the1100delC variant of the cell-cycle-checkpoint kinase gene CHEK2, which is carried by approximately 1% of the population confers a two-fold increase in female breast cancer and a 10-fold increase in male breast cancer. 15488637 Human
chek2 female breast cancer We have previously shown that the1100delC variant of the cell-cycle-checkpoint kinase gene CHEK2, which is carried by approximately 1% of the population confers a two-fold increase in female breast cancer and a 10-fold increase in male breast cancer. 15488637 Human
chek2 breast cancer To extend our knowledge on the role of CHEK2 in susceptibility to male breast cancer we have screened a series of 26 breast cancer cases with male representation for germline sequence variation in the CHEK2 gene. 15488637 Human
chek2 male breast cancer To extend our knowledge on the role of CHEK2 in susceptibility to male breast cancer we have screened a series of 26 breast cancer cases with male representation for germline sequence variation in the CHEK2 gene. 15488637 Human
chek2 prostate cancer A single founder allele of the CHEK2 gene has been associated with predisposition to breast and prostate cancer in North America and Europe. 15492928 Human
chek2 cancers The range of cancers associated with mutations of the CHEK2 gene may be much greater than previously thought. 15492928 Human
chek2 stage iii breast cancer Alternative splicing and mutation status of CHEK2 in stage III breast cancer. 15361853 Human
chek2 human tumours Both germline and somatic loss-of-function CHEK2 mutations occur in human tumours, the former linked to the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and the latter found in diverse types of sporadic malignancies. 15361853 Human
chek2 tumour The truncated protein encoded by CHEK2 carrying the 1368insA was stable yet mislocalized to the cytoplasm in tumour sections and when ectopically expressed in cultured cells. 15361853 Human
chek2 tumour Unexpectedly, we found CHEK2 to be subject to extensive alternative splicing, with some 90 splice variants detected in our tumour series. 15361853 Human
chek2 cancers While all cancers expressed normal-length CHEK2 mRNA together with the spliced transcripts, we demonstrate and/or predict some of these splice variants to lack CHK2 function and/or localize aberrantly. 15361853 Human
chek2 breast cancer Frequency of CHEK2 mutations in a population based, case-control study of breast cancer in young women. 15535844 Human
chek2 breast cancer METHODS: We report here on the frequency of three CHEK2 variants that alter protein function--1100delC, R145W, and I175T--in 506 cases and 459 controls from a population based, case-control study of breast cancer conducted in young women from western Wash 15535844 Human
chek2 breast cancer CONCLUSION: The CHEK2 variants are rare in the western Washington population and, based on accumulated evidence across studies, are unlikely to be major breast cancer susceptibility genes. 15535844 Human
chek2 breast cancer Mutations in the CHEK2 and ATM genes, by contrast, cause much more modest (2-4 fold) risks of breast cancer. 15557796 Human
chek2 breast cancer Correlation of CHEK2 protein expression and c.1100delC mutation status with tumor characteristics among unselected breast cancer patients. 15472904 Human
chek2 tumor Correlation of CHEK2 protein expression and c.1100delC mutation status with tumor characteristics among unselected breast cancer patients. 15472904 Human
chek2 tumors The c.1100delC mutation is associated with familial breast cancer, and tumors from mutation carriers show reduced or absent CHEK2 protein expression. 15472904 Human
chek2 familial breast cancer The c.1100delC mutation is associated with familial breast cancer, and tumors from mutation carriers show reduced or absent CHEK2 protein expression. 15472904 Human
chek2 breast tumors We have here studied CHEK2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 611 unselected breast tumors and also evaluated the tumor characteristics among 1,297 unselected breast cancer patients defined for the c.1100delC germ line mu 15472904 Human
chek2 breast cancer We have here studied CHEK2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 611 unselected breast tumors and also evaluated the tumor characteristics among 1,297 unselected breast cancer patients defined for the c.1100delC germ line mu 15472904 Human
chek2 tumor We have here studied CHEK2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 611 unselected breast tumors and also evaluated the tumor characteristics among 1,297 unselected breast cancer patients defined for the c.1100delC germ line mu 15472904 Human
chek2 breast cancers CHEK2 protein expression was reduced in 21.1% of the unselected breast cancers studied. 15472904 Human
chek2 tumors Tumors with reduced CHEK2 expression had more often larger primary tumor size (pT3-4; nominal significance p = 0.002) compared to tumors with normal staining. 15472904 Human
chek2 cowden syndrome Suspected genetic factors include AR gene mutations, CYP17 polymorphism, Cowden syndrome, and CHEK2. 15668471 Human
chek2 breast cancer Functional and genomic approaches reveal an ancient CHEK2 allele associated with breast cancer in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. 15649950 Human
chek2 breast cancer We first identified two extended haplotypes at CHEK2 that co-segregated with breast cancer in high-risk families. 15649950 Human
chek2 breast cancer Low frequency of CHEK2 1100delC allele in Australian multiple-case breast cancer families: functional analysis in heterozygous individuals. 15700044 Human
chek2 breast cancer A protein-truncating variant of CHEK2, 1100delC, is associated with a moderate increase in breast cancer risk. 15700044 Human
chek2 breast cancer All available relatives in these two families were genotyped, but there was no evidence of co-segregation between the CHEK2 variant and breast cancer. 15700044 Human
chek2 breast cancer Such compensation of the 1100delC defect in CHEK2 might explain the rather low breast cancer risk associated with the CHEK2 variant, compared to that associated with truncating mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. 15700044 Human
chek2 breast cancer The CHEK2 c.1100delC germline mutation rarely contributes to breast cancer development in the Czech Republic. 15803363 Human
chek2 breast cancer In this study we performed the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation analysis in 1046 breast cancer patients and 730 unaffected control individuals. 15803363 Human
chek2 breast cancer Pathology of breast cancer in women with constitutional CHEK2 mutations. 15803365 Human
chek2 breast cancer There was no significant overall association between CHEK2 and breast cancer (OR = 1.3; p = 0.30), but among those with lobular carcinoma the association with the I157T missense mutation was very strong (OR = 6.6; p > 0.0001). 15803365 Human
chek2 lobular carcinoma There was no significant overall association between CHEK2 and breast cancer (OR = 1.3; p = 0.30), but among those with lobular carcinoma the association with the I157T missense mutation was very strong (OR = 6.6; p > 0.0001). 15803365 Human
chek2 colorectal tumours Five hundred and sixty-four familial colorectal tumours were studied for expression of CHEK2 using tissue microarrays and an antibody against the NH2-terminal SQ regulatory domain of the CHEK2 protein. 15818573 Human
chek2 tumours Normal colonic tissue from patients whose tumours showed loss of CHEK2 expression was investigated further using fragment and sequence analysis for the presence of a CHEK2*1100delC mutation and five other (R117G, R137Q, R145W, I157T, and R180H) known germ 15818573 Human
chek2 tumours Twenty-nine tumours demonstrated loss of expression for CHEK2. 15818573 Human
chek2 familial colorectal cancer It is also concluded that CHEK2 protein abrogation is not caused by the CHEK2 germline variants R117G, R137Q, R145W, I157T, and R180H in familial colorectal cancer. 15818573 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer and the CHEK2 1100delC mutation. 15852425 Human
chek2 breast cancer The CHEK2 1100delC mutation was recently identified as a low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility allele. 15852425 Human
chek2 breast cancer The frame-shift mutation 1100delC in the cell-cycle-checkpoint kinase 2 gene (CHEK2) has been reported to be a low penetrance breast cancer gene in Northern European populations. 15951971 Human
chek2 breast cancer In Poland founder alleles of the BRCA1, CHEK2 and NBS1 genes have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but the relative contribution of each of these alleles to the overall breast cancer burden has not yet been determined. 15980987 Human
chek2 breast cancer Mutations in BRCA1 and CHEK2 contributed in approximately equal measure to the burden of breast cancer in Poland. 15980987 Human
chek2 cancer Genetic aberrations in TP53 and in ATM and CHEK2 predispose to cancer. 15987456 Human
chek2 breast cancer Association of two mutations in the CHEK2 gene with breast cancer. 15810020 Human
chek2 breast cancer The 1100delC mutation of the cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) gene confers an increased risk for breast cancer, but the clinical impact of other CHEK2 gene variants remains unclear. 15810020 Human
chek2 breast cancer We determined the frequency of two functionally relevant CHEK2 gene mutations, I157T and IVS2+1G > A, in two large series of breast cancer cases and controls from two independent populations. 15810020 Human
chek2 inherited breast cancer Our data indicate that the I157T allele, and possibly the IVS2+1G > A allele, of the CHEK2 gene contribute to inherited breast cancer susceptibility. 15810020 Human
chek2 primary glioblastomas CHEK2 mutations in primary glioblastomas. 16078115 Human
chek2 hereditary breast cancer Absence of CHEK2 mutations in Spanish families with hereditary breast cancer. 16080966 Human
chek2 breast cancer No increased susceptibility to breast cancer from combined CHEK2 1100delC genotype and the HLA class III region risk factors. 16043347 Human
chek2 breast cancer CHEK2 is low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene. 16043347 Human
chek2 breast cancer The CHEK2 1100delC mutation was analysed in the same series of patients and controls as in the HLA breast cancer study. 16043347 Human
chek 2 breast cancer Hereditary breast cancer is characterized by an inherited susceptibility to breast cancer on basis of an identified germline mutation in one allele of a high penetrance susceptibility gene (such as BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK 2, TP53 or PTEN). 15351094 Human
chek 2 hereditary breast cancer Hereditary breast cancer is characterized by an inherited susceptibility to breast cancer on basis of an identified germline mutation in one allele of a high penetrance susceptibility gene (such as BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK 2, TP53 or PTEN). 15351094 Human
chk2 aml In addition, we demonstrated a previously described polymorphism at codon 84 (A to G at nucleotide 252) of exon 1 of CHK2 in three of 41 MDS and three of 41 AML patients. 11248330 Human
chk2 familial cancer Recently, heterozygous germline mutations in Chk2 have been identified in a subset of patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a highly penetrant familial cancer phenotype, suggesting that Chk2 is a tumor suppressor gene. 11053450 Human
chk2 testicular germ-cell tumours Chk2 tumour suppressor protein in human spermatogenesis and testicular germ-cell tumours. 11593395 Human
chk2 germ-cell tumour As DNA breaks occur commonly during gametogenesis, and p53 is wild-type and overexpressed in testicular cancer, we examined abundance and localisation of the Chk2 protein during normal development of human testes, and at various stages of germ-cell tumour 11593395 Human
chk2 ovarian tumors Mutations of the CHK2 gene are found in some osteosarcomas, but are rare in breast, lung, and ovarian tumors. 11746983 Human
chk2 neoplasia Analysis of CHK2 in vulval neoplasia. 11875739 Human
chk2 neoplasia Structure and expression of the Rad53 homologue CHK2 were studied in vulval neoplasia. 11875739 Human
chk2 skin tumors Unlike ATM(-/-) and p53(-/-) mice, Chk2(-/-) mice do not spontaneously develop tumors, although Chk2 does suppress 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced skin tumors. 12192050 Mouse
chk2 aml As p53 mutations are rare in MDS and AML, we investigated the status of the CHK2 gene by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in patients with MDS (n=10) and patients in whom MDS had transformed into AML (n=3). 12363465 Human
chk2 lymphoid neoplasms To determine the potential role of CHK2 alterations in the pathogenesis of lymphoid neoplasms we have examined the gene status, protein, and mRNA expression in a series of tumors and nonneoplastic lymphoid samples. 12393693 Human
chk2 breast tumour In addition, Chk2 was phosphorylated at Thr 68 in more than 50% of surgically resected lung and breast tumour specimens from otherwise untreated patients [corrected]. 12447382 Human
chk2 cancer [Genes and cancer. CHK2 (CDS1, Rad53): tumor suppressor gene] 12957797 Human
chk2 rb Both Atm and Nbs1 contribute to Chk2 activation and p53 phosphorylation following deregulation of normal Rb growth control. 15024084 Human
chk2 rb Our results suggest that E2F1 plays a central role in signaling disturbances in the Rb growth control pathway and, by upregulation of Chk2, may sensitize cells to undergo apoptosis. 15024084 Human
chk2 cancers Chk2 gene mutations or decreased expression, leading to its protein loss of function on Cdc25A target, and Cdc25A overexpression have been linked to poor prognosis of human cancers. 15048068 Human
chk2 cancer Possible causes of chromosome instability: comparison of chromosomal abnormalities in cancer cell lines with mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHK2 and BUB1. 15162061 Human
chk2 tumour Two lines derived from the same tumour, DLD-1 and HCT-15, with bi-allelic mutation of CHK2, had karyotypes that were typical of near-diploid colorectal lines considered chromosomally stable. 15162061 Human
chk2 breast and ovarian cancer INTRODUCTION: Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, TP53, CHK2 and PTEN account for many, but not all, multiple-case breast and ovarian cancer families. 15217503 Human
chk2 tumors Furthermore, targeting DNA repair (Tdp1) and checkpoints (ATM, Chk1 and Chk2) might increase the selectivity of Top1 inhibitors for tumors, thereby increasing the antitumor activity while reducing the side effects of Top1 inhibitors. 15379698 Human
chk2 tumors Germ-line mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and CHK2 genes have been detected in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), suggesting a potential role of these genes in genetic predisposition to these tumors. 15020270 Human
chk2 malignant melanoma of the skin Rarity of germline 1100delC mutation in CHK2 in patients with malignant melanoma of the skin. 15057041 Human
chk2 familial malignant melanoma In this study the proportion of sporadic and familial malignant melanoma (MM) cases harbouring 1100delC in CHK2 was determined to assess whether this mutation is associated with the occurrence of MM. 15057041 Human
chk2 brain tumours The MM patient with a CHK2 founder mutation was a 56-year-old female with a history of brain tumours at age 33 and 40 years, sarcoma at 41 years and finally MM at 55 years. 15057041 Human
chk2 non-small cell lung cancer CHK2 kinase expression is down-regulated due to promoter methylation in non-small cell lung cancer. 15125777 Human
chk2 non-small cell lung cancer RESULT: We reported that the CHK2 expression is diminished or absent in both non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and clinical lung cancer tumor specimens. 15125777 Human
chk2 tumor RESULT: We reported that the CHK2 expression is diminished or absent in both non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and clinical lung cancer tumor specimens. 15125777 Human
chk2 nsclc RESULT: We reported that the CHK2 expression is diminished or absent in both non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and clinical lung cancer tumor specimens. 15125777 Human
chk2 lung cancer RESULT: We reported that the CHK2 expression is diminished or absent in both non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and clinical lung cancer tumor specimens. 15125777 Human
chk2 nsclc The absent CHK2 expression in NSCLC was due to hypermethylation of the CHK2 gene promoter, preventing from binding of a transcriptional factor, leading to silence of the CHK2 gene transcription. 15125777 Human
chk2 non-small cell lung cancer CONCLUSION: Since the CHK2 null mice showed a remarkable radioresistance, which bear significant similarity to clinical behavior of NSCLC, down-regulation of CHK2 kinase expression by CHK2 gene silencing and methylation in non-small cell lung cancer sugge 15125777 Human
chk2 nsclc CONCLUSION: Since the CHK2 null mice showed a remarkable radioresistance, which bear significant similarity to clinical behavior of NSCLC, down-regulation of CHK2 kinase expression by CHK2 gene silencing and methylation in non-small cell lung cancer sugge 15125777 Human
chk2 tumors Most women with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer have tumors characterized by alterations in particular genes, mainly BRCA1 and BRCA2, but also CHK2, ATM, STK11 and others. 15280181 Human
chk2 breast-ovarian cancer Most women with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer have tumors characterized by alterations in particular genes, mainly BRCA1 and BRCA2, but also CHK2, ATM, STK11 and others. 15280181 Human
chk2 tumor The relationship of Chk2 to human cancer studies is developing rapidly with increasing evidence that Chk2 plays a role in tumor suppression. 15279791 Human
chk2 cancer The relationship of Chk2 to human cancer studies is developing rapidly with increasing evidence that Chk2 plays a role in tumor suppression. 15279791 Human
chk2 hyperplasia Uterus hyperplasia and increased carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in mice carrying a targeted mutation of the Chk2 phosphorylation site in Brca1. 15485917 Mouse
chk2 tumor These observations suggest that Chk2 phosphorylation of S971 is involved in Brca1 function in modulating the DNA damage response and repressing tumor formation. 15485917 Human
chk2 leukemia In conclusion, Chk1 and Chk2 may be regarded as targets of therapy for leukemia. 15498111 Human
chk2 cancer The regulation of CHK2 in human cancer. 15361833 Human
chk2 cancer The p53 tumour suppressor is a central component of a DNA-damage-inducible pathway controlled by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and CHK2 protein kinases that have a central role in cancer suppression. 15361833 Human
chk2 human tumour One limitation of current human cancer research is the difficulty in developing genetic models that reveal the post-translational regulation of a growth suppressor like CHK2 within the microenvironment of a human tumour. 15361833 Human
chk2 cancer One limitation of current human cancer research is the difficulty in developing genetic models that reveal the post-translational regulation of a growth suppressor like CHK2 within the microenvironment of a human tumour. 15361833 Human
chk2 tumour Gaining such insights is important since yeast models and human tissue culture cell lines do not necessarily predict how enzymes like CHK2 are regulated in vivo, and therefore what factors can affect CHK2 tumour suppressor function. 15361833 Human
chk2 cancers This approach is exemplified by two studies in this edition of Oncogene: both use a set of well-characterized human cancers with the objective of identifying novel post-translational control of the tumour suppressor CHK2. 15361833 Human
chk2 tumour This approach is exemplified by two studies in this edition of Oncogene: both use a set of well-characterized human cancers with the objective of identifying novel post-translational control of the tumour suppressor CHK2. 15361833 Human
chk2 cancers These studies highlight the need to develop model systems to understand why CHK2-activating pathways are being triggered or suppressed in different human cancers and whether the splicing machinery can be manipulated to control the activity of CHK2 for the 15361833 Human
chk2 urinary bladder cancer Aberrations of the Chk2 tumour suppressor in advanced urinary bladder cancer. 15361851 Human
chk2 tumour Aberrations of the Chk2 tumour suppressor in advanced urinary bladder cancer. 15361851 Human
chk2 carcinomas Defects of Chk2 occur in subsets of diverse sporadic malignancies and predispose to several types of hereditary carcinomas. 15361851 Human
chk2 tumours However, the status of Chk2 in tumours of the urinary bladder remains unknown. 15361851 Human
chk2 bladder carcinomas Here, we report that among 58 advanced (grade T2-T4) human bladder carcinomas, immunohistochemical analysis revealed tumour-specific reduction or lack of Chk2 protein in 6 (10.3%) cases. 15361851 Human
chk2 carcinoma Genetic analysis of the latter subset showed that a Chk2-negative carcinoma #668 harboured a truncating mutation 1100delC, in one Chk2 allele and loss of the corresponding second allele. 15361851 Human
chk2 tumours Furthermore, the vast majority of the tumours showed 'unscheduled' activatory phosphorylation on Thr68 of Chk2 in the absence of any DNA-damaging treatment. 15361851 Human
chk2 tumours Our results indicate that the otherwise dormant DNA damage signal transducer Chk2 is aberrantly and constitutively activated in invasive urinary bladder carcinomas, and that such likely proapoptotic checkpoint signalling can be disabled by inactivation of 15361851 Human
chk2 urinary bladder carcinomas Our results indicate that the otherwise dormant DNA damage signal transducer Chk2 is aberrantly and constitutively activated in invasive urinary bladder carcinomas, and that such likely proapoptotic checkpoint signalling can be disabled by inactivation of 15361851 Human
chk2 tumour Our results indicate that the otherwise dormant DNA damage signal transducer Chk2 is aberrantly and constitutively activated in invasive urinary bladder carcinomas, and that such likely proapoptotic checkpoint signalling can be disabled by inactivation of 15361851 Human
chk2 breast carcinomas Here we examined the status of CHK2 by genetic and immunohistochemical analyses in 53 breast carcinomas previously characterized for TP53 status. 15361853 Human
chk2 cancers While all cancers expressed normal-length CHEK2 mRNA together with the spliced transcripts, we demonstrate and/or predict some of these splice variants to lack CHK2 function and/or localize aberrantly. 15361853 Human
chk2 tumour We conclude that cytoplasmic sequestration may represent a novel mechanism to disable CHK2, and propose to further explore the significance of the complex splicing patterns of this tumour suppressor gene in oncogenesis. 15361853 Human
chk2 tumors In all these tumors ATM, CHK2, and p53 genes were wild type. 15526025 Human
chk2 human tumor We report here that in several human tumor cell lines, Chk1 and Chk2 control the induction of the p53 related transcription factor p73 in response to DNA damage. 15601819 Human
chk2 hodgkin's lymphoma Regulation of Chk2 gene expression in lymphoid malignancies: involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines. 15153943 Human
chk2 lymphoid malignancies Regulation of Chk2 gene expression in lymphoid malignancies: involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines. 15153943 Human
chk2 hl We investigated the expression levels of the genes encoding Chk2 and several cell-cycle regulators in nine cell lines from lymphoid malignancies, including three Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) lines. 15153943 Human
chk2 hodgkin's lymphoma We investigated the expression levels of the genes encoding Chk2 and several cell-cycle regulators in nine cell lines from lymphoid malignancies, including three Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) lines. 15153943 Human
chk2 lymphoid malignancies We investigated the expression levels of the genes encoding Chk2 and several cell-cycle regulators in nine cell lines from lymphoid malignancies, including three Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) lines. 15153943 Human
chk2 hl We found that all HL cell lines exhibited a drastic reduction in Chk2 expression without any apparent mutation of the Chk2 gene. 15153943 Human
chk2 hl However, expression of Chk2 in HL cells was restored following treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A (TsA) and sodium butyrate (SB), or with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5Aza-dC). 15153943 Human
chk2 hl Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (Chip) assays revealed that treatment of HL cells with TsA, SB or 5Aza-dC resulted in increased levels of acetylated histones H3 and H4, and decreased levels of dimethylated H3 lysine 9 at the Chk2 promoter. 15153943 Human
chk2 hl These results indicate that expression of the Chk2 gene is downregulated in HL cells via epigenetic mechanisms. 15153943 Human
chk2 colon carcinoma To understand the role of Chk1 and Chk2 in the cellular response to different anticancer agents, we knocked down the expression of each protein or simultaneously of both proteins by using the small interfering RNA technique in the HCT-116 colon carcinoma 15326376 Human
chk2 human leukemia Role of Chk1 and Chk2 in Ara-C-induced differentiation of human leukemia K562 cells. 15676021 Human
chk2 ovarian cancer Examination of Chk2 protein revealed a decreased expression of Chk2 protein in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines, suggesting that degradation or decreased expression of Chk2 is partially responsible for chemo-resistance. 15694385 Human
chk2 cancer Therefore, these results are the first to indicate a novel mechanism of regulating Chk2 in cisplatin-induced resistance of cancer cells. 15694385 Human
chk2 hyperplasias We analysed a panel of human lung hyperplasias, all of which retained wild-type p53 genes and had no signs of gross chromosomal instability, and found signs of a DNA damage response, including histone H2AX and Chk2 phosphorylation, p53 accumulation, focal 15829965 Human
chk2 pediatric solid tumors Aberrations of the CHK2 gene are rare in pediatric solid tumors. 15942682 Human
chk2 human tumors The CHK2 gene, whose product is a checkpoint kinase that plays a central role in DNA damage response and acts upstream of TP53, has been found to be mutated in a subset of Li-Fraumeni syndrome without mutations of TP53 and in some other sporadic human tum 15942682 Human
chk2 tumor The CHK2 gene, whose product is a checkpoint kinase that plays a central role in DNA damage response and acts upstream of TP53, has been found to be mutated in a subset of Li-Fraumeni syndrome without mutations of TP53 and in some other sporadic human tum 15942682 Human
chk2 pediatric solid tumors Thus, we analyzed the CHK2 gene to address whether it is a candidate tumor suppressor gene for pediatric solid tumors. 15942682 Human
chk2 tumor Thus, we analyzed the CHK2 gene to address whether it is a candidate tumor suppressor gene for pediatric solid tumors. 15942682 Human
chk2 cancers We screened for mutations of the CHK2 gene in 25 NB, 8 rhbdomyosarcoma, 12 Ewing sarcoma, and 26 other pediatric solid tumor cell lines as well as 77 fresh tumors including two cases of multiple cancers. 15942682 Human
chk2 pediatric solid tumor We screened for mutations of the CHK2 gene in 25 NB, 8 rhbdomyosarcoma, 12 Ewing sarcoma, and 26 other pediatric solid tumor cell lines as well as 77 fresh tumors including two cases of multiple cancers. 15942682 Human
chk2 ewing sarcoma We screened for mutations of the CHK2 gene in 25 NB, 8 rhbdomyosarcoma, 12 Ewing sarcoma, and 26 other pediatric solid tumor cell lines as well as 77 fresh tumors including two cases of multiple cancers. 15942682 Human
chk2 pediatric solid tumors These results suggest that aberrations of the CHK2 gene are rare in pediatric solid tumors. 15942682 Human
chk2 breast cancer INTRODUCTION: Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, TP53, CHK2 and PTEN account for only 20-30% of the familial aggregation of breast cancer, which suggests the involvement of additional susceptibility genes. 15987455 Human
chk2 cancer These are often defective in cancer, leading to the suggestion that inhibition of one or both of the cell cycle checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2 may drive a cancer cell that already has defects in its cell cycle checkpoints towards death. 15964238 Human
chk2 cancer Dual Induction of Apoptosis and Senescence in Cancer Cells by Chk2 Activation: Checkpoint Activation as a Strategy against Cancer. 16024600 Human
chk2 cancer In contrast, here we report that direct activation of Chk2 alone (without chemotherapeutic agents) led to potent inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. 16024600 Human
chk2 cancer In the absence of de novo DNA damage, checkpoint activation was achieved by increased Chk2 expression, as evidenced by its phosphorylation at Thr68, resulting in senescence and apoptosis of cancer cells (DLD1 and HeLa). 16024600 Human
chk2 tumour Seven tumour suppressor genes (Chk1, Chk2, Apaf1, Rb1, p53, p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF)) and two oncogenes (N-ras and BRAF) were screened in nine human malignant melanoma (HMM) cell lines for point mutations or small deletions/insertions by DGGE, TGGE and SCC 16077986 Human
chk2 human malignant mesothelioma According to our knowledge, this is the first mutation screening of Chk1, Chk2, Apaf1 and Rb1 in human malignant mesothelioma. 16077986 Human
chk2 tumors Chk2 inhibitors might be used to enhance the tumor selectivity of DNA targeted agents in p53-deficient tumors, and for the treatment of tumors whose growth depends on enhanced Chk2 activity. 16101442 Human
chk2 tumor Chk2 inhibitors might be used to enhance the tumor selectivity of DNA targeted agents in p53-deficient tumors, and for the treatment of tumors whose growth depends on enhanced Chk2 activity. 16101442 Human
rad53 neoplasia Structure and expression of the Rad53 homologue CHK2 were studied in vulval neoplasia. 11875739 Human
rad53 cancer [Genes and cancer. CHK2 (CDS1, Rad53): tumor suppressor gene] 12957797 Human
chek2 early-stage breast cancer The comparison group consisted of 125 early-stage breast cancer patients without a CHEK2 gene mutation (non-carriers). 17250914 Human
chek2 metastasis In a multivariate step-wise Cox regression analysis presence of a CHEK2 mutation remained a borderline significant discriminator for metastasis-free survival (p=0.048; OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.2-1.0) next to T-stage (p=0.001; OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.6). 17250914 Human
chk2 small cell lung cancer Histological type-selective, tumor-predominant expression of a novel CHK1 isoform and infrequent in vivo somatic CHK2 mutation in small cell lung cancer. 10987268 Human
chk2 acute myeloid leukemias (aml) We performed a mutational analysis of the CHK2 gene using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in 41 bone marrow samples from individuals with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 41 samples of acute myeloid leukemias 11248330 Human
chk2 mds We performed a mutational analysis of the CHK2 gene using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in 41 bone marrow samples from individuals with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 41 samples of acute myeloid leukemias 11248330 Human
chk2 mds We found a novel G to C transversion resulting in a change from Ala to Gly at codon 507 of CHK2 in one MDS sample, but normal cells from this individual did not have the abnormality. 11248330 Human
chk2 mds In addition, we demonstrated a previously described polymorphism at codon 84 (A to G at nucleotide 252) of exon 1 of CHK2 in three of 41 MDS and three of 41 AML patients. 11248330 Human
chk2 mds The presence of a CHK2 mutation in MDS highlights the importance of alterations of cell cycle checkpoint genes in this disease. 11248330 Human
chk2 gct As DNA breaks occur commonly during gametogenesis, and p53 is wild-type and overexpressed in testicular cancer, we examined abundance and localisation of the Chk2 protein during normal development of human testes, and at various stages of germ-cell tumour 11593395 Human
chk2 osteosarcomas Mutations of the CHK2 gene are found in some osteosarcomas, but are rare in breast, lung, and ovarian tumors. 11746983 Human
chk2 osteosarcomas Exploiting the genomic sequence of chromosome 22, we looked for mutations in the exons and intron junctions of the CHK2 gene in DNA samples from 170 patients (57 osteosarcomas, 25 other sarcomas, 35 nonsmall-cell lung, 20 ovarian, and 33 breast cancers). 11746983 Human
chk2 sarcomas Exploiting the genomic sequence of chromosome 22, we looked for mutations in the exons and intron junctions of the CHK2 gene in DNA samples from 170 patients (57 osteosarcomas, 25 other sarcomas, 35 nonsmall-cell lung, 20 ovarian, and 33 breast cancers). 11746983 Human
chk2 osteosarcoma These findings of CHK2 gene mutations are consistent with osteosarcoma being a defining tumor of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. 11746983 Human
chk2 squamous cell carcinomas The two squamous cell carcinomas with mutations in CHK2 also expressed mutant p53. 11875739 Human
chk2 mds As p53 mutations are rare in MDS and AML, we investigated the status of the CHK2 gene by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in patients with MDS (n=10) and patients in whom MDS had transformed into AML (n=3). 12363465 Human
chk2 mds In the MDS group, we found one patient with a conserved mutation (Lys-->Arg) in the forked head-associated (FHA) domain of the CHK2 coding sequence. 12363465 Human
chk2 mds We conclude that alterations of CHK2 and possible involvement in the pathogenesis of MDS may be a rare event. 12363465 Human
chk2 mcl However, 5 tumors, one typical MCL, 2 blastoid MCLs, and 2 large cell lymphomas, showed marked loss of protein expression, including 2 samples with complete absence of CHK2 protein. 12393693 Human
chk2 malignant lymphomas In conclusion, CHK2 alterations are uncommon in malignant lymphomas but occur in a subset of aggressive tumors independently of p53 or ATM alterations. 12393693 Human
chk2 tumors In conclusion, CHK2 alterations are uncommon in malignant lymphomas but occur in a subset of aggressive tumors independently of p53 or ATM alterations. 12393693 Human
chk2 acute myeloid leukemia (aml) Freshly isolated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells showed patterns of response to GO in vitro similar to those observed with the cell lines, including phosphorylation of Chk2 and caspase 3 activation. 12576328 Human
chk2 sarcoma The MM patient with a CHK2 founder mutation was a 56-year-old female with a history of brain tumours at age 33 and 40 years, sarcoma at 41 years and finally MM at 55 years. 15057041 Human
chk2 ovarian cancer Most women with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer have tumors characterized by alterations in particular genes, mainly BRCA1 and BRCA2, but also CHK2, ATM, STK11 and others. 15280181 Human
chk2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin) We examined human papillomavirus (HPV) typing and the status of ATM, chk2, CDC25C, cdc2 and cyclinB1 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cancer (IC). 15289842 Human
chk2 invasive cancer (ic) We examined human papillomavirus (HPV) typing and the status of ATM, chk2, CDC25C, cdc2 and cyclinB1 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cancer (IC). 15289842 Human
chk2 promyelocytic leukemia Promyelocytic leukemia activates chk2 by mediating chk2 autophosphorylation. 16835227 Human
chk2 tumor Chk2 is a kinase critical for DNA damage-induced apoptosis and is considered a tumor suppressor. 16835227 Human
chk2 cancers Although mutations of p53 are present in more than half of all tumors, mutations of Chk2 in cancers are rare, suggesting that Chk2 may be inactivated by unknown alternative mechanisms. 16835227 Human
chk2 tumors Although mutations of p53 are present in more than half of all tumors, mutations of Chk2 in cancers are rare, suggesting that Chk2 may be inactivated by unknown alternative mechanisms. 16835227 Human
chk2 apl PML/RARalpha in APL suppresses Chk2 by dominantly inhibiting the auto-phosphorylation step, but inactivation of PML/RARalpha with alltrans retinoic acid (ATRA) restores Chk2 autophosphorylation and activity. 16835227 Human
chk2 apl Thus, by fusing PML with RARalpha, the APL cells appear to have achieved functional suppression of Chk2 compromising the Chk2-p53 apoptotic pathway. 16835227 Human
chk2 tumor The checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2, also known as CHK2) is a tumor suppressor that participates in the DNA damage-signaling pathway. 16835864 Human
chek2 breast cancer The CHEK2 gene mutation 1100delC is associated with a moderate increase of breast cancer risk (RR = 2). 12495879 Human
chek2 cancer CHEK2 is probably one of the genetic factors associated with moderate risk, but however when associated with other variants, it could explain some familial breast cancer and sporadic cancer cases. 12495879 Human
chek2 familial breast cancer CHEK2 is probably one of the genetic factors associated with moderate risk, but however when associated with other variants, it could explain some familial breast cancer and sporadic cancer cases. 12495879 Human
chek2 breast cancer In seven cases of breast cancer, we found a slight decrease in CHEK2 expression. 14661035 Human
chek2 hnpcc The CHEK2 1100delC allele is not relevant for risk assessment in HNPCC and HBCC Spanish families. 15951971 Human
chek2 breast tumors MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have studied two tissue microarrays that include 103 familial and 104 sporadic breast tumors, with a panel of DNA repair markers including ATM, CHEK2, RAD51, RAD50, XRCC3, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. 16234517 Human
chek2 tumors RESULTS: We found more frequent expression of CHEK2 in BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumors than in non-BRCA1/2 and sporadic tumors. 16234517 Human
chek2 tumors Because BRCA2 tumors present a specific immunohistochemical profile for RAD51 and CHEK2 markers that is different from non-BRCA1/2 tumors, we have built a multivariate model with these markers that distinguish both tumors with an estimated probability of 16234517 Human
chek2 tumors CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that BRCA2 tumors demonstrate more cytoplasmic and less nuclear RAD51 staining, and increased CHEK2 staining. 16234517 Human
chek2 female breast cancer FINDINGS: The relatives of bilateral cases who were wild-type for CHEK2 had three times the population risk of female breast cancer (145 cases: SIR 3.48 (95% CI 2.96-4.09), twice the risk of prostate cancer (34 cases: SIR 2.41, 1.67-3.36) and a large exce 16257342 Human
chek2 male breast cancer FINDINGS: The relatives of bilateral cases who were wild-type for CHEK2 had three times the population risk of female breast cancer (145 cases: SIR 3.48 (95% CI 2.96-4.09), twice the risk of prostate cancer (34 cases: SIR 2.41, 1.67-3.36) and a large exce 16257342 Human
chek2 prostate cancer FINDINGS: The relatives of bilateral cases who were wild-type for CHEK2 had three times the population risk of female breast cancer (145 cases: SIR 3.48 (95% CI 2.96-4.09), twice the risk of prostate cancer (34 cases: SIR 2.41, 1.67-3.36) and a large exce 16257342 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Characterization of CHEK2 mutations in prostate cancer. 16835864 Human
chek2 tumor The checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2, also known as CHK2) is a tumor suppressor that participates in the DNA damage-signaling pathway. 16835864 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Previously, we reported germline CHEK2 mutations in patients with prostate cancer. 16835864 Human
chek2 prostate tumor In this study, we have identified two novel somatic CHEK2 mutations, c.349A > G (p.R117G) and c.967A > C (p.E321K), in prostate tumor specimens and investigated the functions of these mutants in vivo. 16835864 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Taken together, these results provide evidence that both germline and somatic CHEK2 mutations identified in prostate cancer may contribute to the development of prostate cancer through the reduction of CHEK2 activation in response to DNA damage and/or onc 16835864 Human
cds1 thymoma The frequency of allele G and genotype G/G at position +49 in CDS1 was increased in patients with thymoma when compared with patients with normal and hyperplastic thymic histopathology. 11857062 Human
chek2 ovarian cancer [Analysis of BRCA1/2 and CHEK2 mutations in ovarian cancer and primary multiple tumors involving the ovaries. 17380889 Human
chk2 familial gastric cancer (fgc) Gastric cancer is often clustered in families with LFS, so it is possible that germline CHK2 mutation is also present in familial gastric cancer (FGC). 11011113 Human
chk2 typical medullary carcinomas Somatic Chk2 coding mutations were detected in 7/141 cases, these occurring in 4/18 BRCA1-associated breast cancers, 1/78 sporadic breast cancers and 2/25 typical medullary carcinomas. 11857075 Human
chk2 early onset breast cancer Analysis of the germ-line of 45 individuals with hereditary or early onset breast cancer revealed wild-type Chk2 sequence in all cases. 11857075 Human
chk2 vulval squamous cell carcinomas A CpG island was identified close to the putative CHK2 transcriptional start site, but methylation-specific PCR did not detect methylation in any of 40 vulval squamous cell carcinomas, irrespective of human papillomavirus or p53 status. 11875739 Human
chk2 vulval squamous cell carcinomas Taken together, these observations reveal that genetic but not epigenetic changes in CHK2 occur in a small proportion of vulval squamous cell carcinomas. 11875739 Human
chk2 large cell lymphomas However, 5 tumors, one typical MCL, 2 blastoid MCLs, and 2 large cell lymphomas, showed marked loss of protein expression, including 2 samples with complete absence of CHK2 protein. 12393693 Human
chk2 human malignant melanoma (hmm) Seven tumour suppressor genes (Chk1, Chk2, Apaf1, Rb1, p53, p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF)) and two oncogenes (N-ras and BRAF) were screened in nine human malignant melanoma (HMM) cell lines for point mutations or small deletions/insertions by DGGE, TGGE and SCC 16077986 Human
chek2 early onset breast cancer This study describes the use of DHPLC for mutation analysis for BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 (1100delC) in 22 patients with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and early onset breast cancer (<35 years of age). 14507240 Human
chek2 hereditary prostate cancer CHEK2 variants associate with hereditary prostate cancer. 14612911 Human
chk2 mantle cell lymphoma (mcl) Germ-line mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and CHK2 genes have been detected in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), suggesting a potential role of these genes in genetic predisposition to these tumors. 15020270 Human
chk2 cancers Defects in Chk2 contribute to the development of both hereditary and sporadic human cancers. 16158050 Human
chk2 tumor The Chk2 kinase is a tumor suppressor and key component of the DNA damage checkpoint response that encompasses cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair. 16317088 Human
chk2 human lung carcinoma High-level expression of virally transduced Chk2 in A549 human lung carcinoma cells led to arrested proliferation, apoptosis, and senescence. 16317088 Human
chk2 tumor These results revealed a p53-independent role for Chk2 in p21 induction and senescence that may contribute to tumor suppression and genotoxic treatment outcome. 16317088 Human
chk2 tumor These results identify hypoxia as a new stimulus for Chk2 activation in an ATM-, MLH1-, and NBS1-dependent manner, and they suggest a novel pathway by which tumor hypoxia may influence cell survival and DNA repair. 16322218 Human
chk2 breast cancer According to the results obtained, PA appears to possess anticarcinogenic properties; these results suggest that the effect of PA on the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated Cdc25C are mediated by Chk2 activation, at least in part, via p21(waf1/cip1) and 16427178 Human
chk2 carcinoma According to the results obtained, PA appears to possess anticarcinogenic properties; these results suggest that the effect of PA on the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated Cdc25C are mediated by Chk2 activation, at least in part, via p21(waf1/cip1) and 16427178 Human
chk2 tumor Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) is a cell-cycle-checkpoint kinase that may act as a tumor suppressor gene due to its important role in DNA damage signaling and cell cycle regulation. 16437383 Human
chk2 breast carcinomas This study was designed to assess the relationship between the expression of Chk2 and well-established prognostic factors, including disease-free-survival and overall survival; and several regulators of cell proliferation and invasiveness in breast carcin 16437383 Human
chk2 tumor This study was designed to assess the relationship between the expression of Chk2 and well-established prognostic factors, including disease-free-survival and overall survival; and several regulators of cell proliferation and invasiveness in breast carcin 16437383 Human
chk2 tumors In normal mammary parenchyma adjacent to the tumors Chk2 stained the nuclei of epithelial cells. 16437383 Human
chk2 carcinomas Downexpression of Chk2 protein was observed in 23 carcinomas and correlated with advanced disease. 16437383 Human
chk2 tumor Among the regulators of tumor cell proliferation and invasiveness analyzed, the downexpression of Chk2 correlated only with reduced expression of p27 and telomerase. 16437383 Human
chk2 familial breast cancers We suggest that the differential control of NHEJ subprocesses by BRCA1, in concert with Chk2, reduces the mutagenic potential of NHEJ, thereby contributing to the prevention of familial breast cancers. 16452195 Human
chk2 breast cancer A truncating allele of the cell cycle checkpoint kinase CHK2 is present in 1% of the population, conferring a moderate increase in breast cancer risk, and inactivation of chk2 enhances mammary tumorigenesis in mice with targeted inactivation of brca1. 16488990 Human
chk2 mouse mammary tumor We used the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter to target expression of a kinase-dead CHK2 allele (D347A). 16488990 Human
chk2 cis Comparative studies of cell surface proteins (e.g. PLAP and KIT), some of the germ cell-specific markers (e.g. MAGEA4, VASA, TSPY and NY-ESO-1), supported by studies of regulatory elements of the cell cycle (e.g. p53, CHK2 and p19-INK4d) demonstrated a cl 16540528 Human
chk2 human ovarian cancer Protein phosphatase 2A interacts with Chk2 and regulates phosphorylation at Thr-68 after cisplatin treatment of human ovarian cancer cells. 16596250 Human
chk2 lung tumors Moreover, and consistent with p14ARF being a determinant of CHK2 phosphorylation in lung carcinogenesis, a strong correlation between p14ARF and phospho-CHK2 (Thr68) protein expression is observed in human lung tumors (P < 0.00006). 16705183 Human
chek2 familial prostate cancer These include the ELAC2 (HPC2), MSR1, and RNASEL (HPC1) genes that have germline mutations in familial prostate cancer; AR, ATBF1, EPHB2 (ERK), KLF6, mitochondria DNA, p53, PTEN, and RAS that have somatic mutations in sporadic prostate cancer; AR, BRCA1, 16267836 Human
chek2 sporadic prostate cancer These include the ELAC2 (HPC2), MSR1, and RNASEL (HPC1) genes that have germline mutations in familial prostate cancer; AR, ATBF1, EPHB2 (ERK), KLF6, mitochondria DNA, p53, PTEN, and RAS that have somatic mutations in sporadic prostate cancer; AR, BRCA1, 16267836 Human
chek2 breast cancer Chromosomal radiosensitivity of breast cancer with a CHEK2 mutation. 16337852 Human
chek2 breast cancer Recently, multiple studies have shown that a sequence variant in CHEK2 (CHEK2 1100delC) plays a role in the susceptibility to breast cancer. 16337852 Human
chek2 breast cancer Because the CHEK2 gene plays a critical role in DNA damage repair and the CHEK2 1100delC variant confers susceptibility to breast cancer, we investigated if patients carrying the CHEK2 1100delC mutation are characterized by an enhanced chromosomal radiose 16337852 Human
chek2 familial breast cancer To this end, familial breast cancer patients, sporadic breast cancer patients, and healthy women, considered in our previously studied to determine their chromosomal radiosensitivity with the G2 and G0-MN assay, were all tested in present study for the pr 16337852 Human
chek2 sporadic breast cancer To this end, familial breast cancer patients, sporadic breast cancer patients, and healthy women, considered in our previously studied to determine their chromosomal radiosensitivity with the G2 and G0-MN assay, were all tested in present study for the pr 16337852 Human
chek2 breast cancer The breast cancer patients with the CHEK2 1100delC genotype had a mean radiation-induced yield of chromatid breaks that was not significantly different from that of the healthy control group. 16337852 Human
chek2 breast cancer Our data suggest that breast cancer patients with a CHEK2 1100delC mutation are in general not characterized by a distinct enhanced chromosomal radiosensitivity. 16337852 Human
chek2 breast cancer These conclusions are, however, very preliminary, because of the small numbers of CHEK2 1100delC breast cancer patients studied. 16337852 Human
chek2 breast cancers At least 1/10 of breast cancers and colorectal cancers occur because of heredity and recently the cell cycle kinase 2, CHEK2 1100delC allele has been identified at a particularly high frequency in families with hereditary breast and colorectal cancer. 16539695 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer At least 1/10 of breast cancers and colorectal cancers occur because of heredity and recently the cell cycle kinase 2, CHEK2 1100delC allele has been identified at a particularly high frequency in families with hereditary breast and colorectal cancer. 16539695 Human
chek2 colorectal cancers At least 1/10 of breast cancers and colorectal cancers occur because of heredity and recently the cell cycle kinase 2, CHEK2 1100delC allele has been identified at a particularly high frequency in families with hereditary breast and colorectal cancer. 16539695 Human
chek2 cancer METHODS: We utilized the Southern Sweden population-based cancer registry to identify women with double primary breast and colorectal cancer and sequenced tumor material in order to assess the contribution of the CHEK2 1100delC to the development of such 16539695 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer METHODS: We utilized the Southern Sweden population-based cancer registry to identify women with double primary breast and colorectal cancer and sequenced tumor material in order to assess the contribution of the CHEK2 1100delC to the development of such 16539695 Human
chek2 tumor METHODS: We utilized the Southern Sweden population-based cancer registry to identify women with double primary breast and colorectal cancer and sequenced tumor material in order to assess the contribution of the CHEK2 1100delC to the development of such 16539695 Human
chek2 tumors METHODS: We utilized the Southern Sweden population-based cancer registry to identify women with double primary breast and colorectal cancer and sequenced tumor material in order to assess the contribution of the CHEK2 1100delC to the development of such 16539695 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer CONCLUSION: In summary, our data suggest that the CHEK2 1100delC is not a major cause of double primary breast and colorectal cancer in Sweden, which suggests that this patient group should not routinely be screened for the CHEK2 1100delC variant. 16539695 Human
chek2 breast cancer Spectrum of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53 in families at high risk of breast cancer. 16551709 Human
chek2 breast cancer OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and types of undetected cancer-predisposing mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, TP53, and PTEN among patients with breast cancer from high-risk families with negative (wild-type) genetic test results for BRCA1 and BRCA2 16551709 Human
chek2 ovarian cancer DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between 2002-2005, probands from 300 US families with 4 or more cases of breast or ovarian cancer but with negative (wild-type) commercial genetic test results for BRCA1 and BRCA2 were screened by multiple DNA-based and 16551709 Human
chek2 breast cancer MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Previously undetected germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, TP53, and PTEN that predispose to breast cancer; frequencies of these mutations among families with negative genetic test results. 16551709 Human
chek2 breast cancer Among patients with breast cancer and severe family histories of cancer who test negative (wild type) for BRCA1 and BRCA2, approximately 12% can be expected to carry a large genomic deletion or duplication in one of these genes, and approximately 5% can b 16551709 Human
chek2 cancer Among patients with breast cancer and severe family histories of cancer who test negative (wild type) for BRCA1 and BRCA2, approximately 12% can be expected to carry a large genomic deletion or duplication in one of these genes, and approximately 5% can b 16551709 Human
chek2 breast cancer Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of CHEK2: Common Variation and Breast Cancer Risk. 16671833 Human
chek2 cancer BACKGROUND: Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) averts cancer development by promoting cell cycle arrest and activating DNA repair in genetically damaged cells. 16671833 Human
chek2 breast cancer Previous investigation has established a role for the CHEK2 gene in breast cancer aetiology, but studies have largely been limited to the rare 1100delC mutation. 16671833 Human
chek2 breast cancer In this study, we aimed to assess the importance of common CHEK2 variants on population risk for breast cancer by capturing the majority of diversity in the gene using haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs). 16671833 Human
chek2 breast cancer We genotyped these six tagSNPs in 1,577 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 1,513 population controls, but found no convincing association between any common CHEK2 haplotype and breast cancer risk. 16671833 Human
chek2 postmenopausal breast cancer We genotyped these six tagSNPs in 1,577 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 1,513 population controls, but found no convincing association between any common CHEK2 haplotype and breast cancer risk. 16671833 Human
chek2 breast cancer CONCLUSIONS: Notwithstanding the involvement of the CHEK2 gene in breast cancer aetiology, we show that common polymorphisms do not influence postmenopausal breast cancer risk. 16671833 Human
chek2 postmenopausal breast cancer CONCLUSIONS: Notwithstanding the involvement of the CHEK2 gene in breast cancer aetiology, we show that common polymorphisms do not influence postmenopausal breast cancer risk. 16671833 Human
chek2 teratoma Fusion of the Tumor-Suppressor Gene CHEK2 and the Gene for the Regulatory Subunit B of Protein Phosphatase 2 PPP2R2A in Childhood Teratoma. 16790090 Human
chek2 tumors Whereas inactivating mutations of CHEK2 previously have been described in a variety of sporadic tumors and in inherited cancer-predisposing syndromes, PPP2R2A, encoding a regulatory subunit of the multimeric enzyme phosphatase 2, has not been directly imp 16790090 Human
chek2 germ cell tumors Our findings suggest that deregulation of CHEK2 and/or PPP2R2A is of pathogenetic importance in at least a subset of germ cell tumors. 16790090 Human
chek2 cancer BACKGROUND: Recently, a functionally defective CHEK2 variant I157T has been proposed to associate with an increased risk of several types of cancer. 16816021 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer (crc) We investigated the CHEK2 I157T variant for colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition in a large population based study including a significant number of familial CRC cases. 16816021 Human
chek2 cancer Furthermore, the higher frequency of I157T among patients with multiple primary tumours as well as those with a family history of any cancer supports a role for CHEK2 I157T as a susceptibility allele for multiple cancer types. 16816021 Human
chek2 primary tumours Furthermore, the higher frequency of I157T among patients with multiple primary tumours as well as those with a family history of any cancer supports a role for CHEK2 I157T as a susceptibility allele for multiple cancer types. 16816021 Human
chek2 breast cancer The 1100delC germline mutation of the CHEK2 gene appears to contribute significantly to the overall breast cancer incidence in some West and North European countries, but seems to be much less frequent among breast cancer patients from other regions of Eu 16830057 Human
chek2 breast cancer We conclude that the 1100delC mutation of the CHEK2 gene contributes little to the overall breast cancer burden in Poland, including familial cases of this malignancy. 16830057 Human
chek2 malignancy We conclude that the 1100delC mutation of the CHEK2 gene contributes little to the overall breast cancer burden in Poland, including familial cases of this malignancy. 16830057 Human
chek2 early-onset breast cancer [CHEK2 c.1100delC may not contribute to genetic background of hereditary breast cancer from Shanghai of China] OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation among non-BRCA1/BRCA2 familial/early-onset breast cancer patients in Shang 16883537 Human
chek2 hereditary breast cancer [CHEK2 c.1100delC may not contribute to genetic background of hereditary breast cancer from Shanghai of China] OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation among non-BRCA1/BRCA2 familial/early-onset breast cancer patients in Shang 16883537 Human
chek2 hereditary breast cancer CONCLUSION: CHEK2 c.1100delC is rare variant for Chinese population and may not contribute to predisposition for hereditary breast cancer in Shanghai. 16883537 Human
chek2 cancers PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of CHEK2 mutations to early-onset breast cancer in Poland and to establish the characteristic features of these cancers. 16914568 Human
chek2 early-onset breast cancer PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of CHEK2 mutations to early-onset breast cancer in Poland and to establish the characteristic features of these cancers. 16914568 Human
chek2 breast cancers Breast cancers in women with a CHEK2 mutation were more commonly of lobular histology (21.5% versus 15.8%; P = 0.05), of size >2 cm (54.8% versus 43.5%; P = 0.01), or of multicentric origin (28.7% versus 19.5%; P = 0.01) than were cancers from women witho 16914568 Human
chek2 cancers Breast cancers in women with a CHEK2 mutation were more commonly of lobular histology (21.5% versus 15.8%; P = 0.05), of size >2 cm (54.8% versus 43.5%; P = 0.01), or of multicentric origin (28.7% versus 19.5%; P = 0.01) than were cancers from women witho 16914568 Human
chek2 early-onset breast cancer CONCLUSION: Three founder alleles in CHEK2 contribute to early-onset breast cancer in Poland. 16914568 Human
chek2 breast cancers Breast tumors which arise in carriers of CHEK2 mutations seem to be similar to those of breast cancers in the population at large. 16914568 Human
chek2 breast tumors Breast tumors which arise in carriers of CHEK2 mutations seem to be similar to those of breast cancers in the population at large. 16914568 Human
chek2 cancer Unique substitution of CHEK2 and TP53 mutations implicated in primary prostate tumors and cancer cell lines. 16941491 Human
chek2 prostate tumors Unique substitution of CHEK2 and TP53 mutations implicated in primary prostate tumors and cancer cell lines. 16941491 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Genetic defects in CHEK2 and TP53 have been implicated in prostate cancer development. 16941491 Human
chek2 prostate tumors We previously described 11 CHEK2 mutations in a group of 84 primary prostate tumors. 16941491 Human
chek2 tumors More interestingly, CHEK2 and TP53 mutations were observed to be mutually substituted in these tumors. 16941491 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Analysis of five commonly used prostate cancer cell lines revealed that four cell lines harboring TP53 mutations carry no CHEK2 mutation while the only cell line (LNCaP) carrying wild-type TP53 harbors a CHEK2 mutation. 16941491 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Our data suggest that the CHEK2 and TP53 mutations can substitute each other in at least 25% (21/84) of prostate cancers and that DNA damage-signaling pathway plays an important role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis. 16941491 Human
chek2 prostate cancers Our data suggest that the CHEK2 and TP53 mutations can substitute each other in at least 25% (21/84) of prostate cancers and that DNA damage-signaling pathway plays an important role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis. 16941491 Human
rad53 familial prostate cancer These include the ELAC2 (HPC2), MSR1, and RNASEL (HPC1) genes that have germline mutations in familial prostate cancer; AR, ATBF1, EPHB2 (ERK), KLF6, mitochondria DNA, p53, PTEN, and RAS that have somatic mutations in sporadic prostate cancer; AR, BRCA1, 16267836 Human
rad53 sporadic prostate cancer These include the ELAC2 (HPC2), MSR1, and RNASEL (HPC1) genes that have germline mutations in familial prostate cancer; AR, ATBF1, EPHB2 (ERK), KLF6, mitochondria DNA, p53, PTEN, and RAS that have somatic mutations in sporadic prostate cancer; AR, BRCA1, 16267836 Human
chk2 fresh tumors We screened for mutations of the CHK2 gene in 25 NB, 8 rhbdomyosarcoma, 12 Ewing sarcoma, and 26 other pediatric solid tumor cell lines as well as 77 fresh tumors including two cases of multiple cancers. 15942682 Human
chk2 fresh tumors Through RT-PCR and subcloning analysis, we detected a similar expression of the CHK2 gene in all of the NB cell lines and fresh tumors; however, we identified at least three isoforms of the CHK2 gene, two of which have not been reported previously. 15942682 Human
chek2 hereditary prostate cancer CONCLUSION: The CHEK2 1100delC mutation is not a clinically important high-risk gene for hereditary prostate cancer susceptibility in the population of southern Sweden. 16452051 Human
chek2 metachronous cancers CHEK2 1100delC in patients with metachronous cancers of the breast and the colorectum. 16539695 Human
chek2 cancer-predisposing syndromes Whereas inactivating mutations of CHEK2 previously have been described in a variety of sporadic tumors and in inherited cancer-predisposing syndromes, PPP2R2A, encoding a regulatory subunit of the multimeric enzyme phosphatase 2, has not been directly imp 16790090 Human
chek2 sporadic colorectal cancer CHEK2 I157T associates with familial and sporadic colorectal cancer. 16816021 Human
chk2 esophageal carcinoma [Effect on retardation of G2/M phase in esophageal carcinoma cells transfected with CHK1 and CHK2 shRNA after irradiation] OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of RNA interference on CHK1 and CHK2 expression and change of G2/M phase arrest in esophageal carci 17236549 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer Germline CHEK2 mutations and colorectal cancer risk: different effects of a missense and truncating mutations? 17230203 Human
chk2 tumor These results have important implications for DNA damage signaling and CHK2-dependent tumor suppression, and they indicate that FHA domains play important and unsuspected roles in S/T kinase signaling mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 11106755 Human
chk2 tumour Functional impact of concomitant versus alternative defects in the Chk2-p53 tumour suppressor pathway. 11571648 Human
chk2 common cancer Despite the preserved ability of common cancer-derived mutant p53 proteins to bind and potentially 'titrate' activated Chk2, the integrity of the S phase checkpoint response to ionizing radiation remained largely intact and dependent on Chk2 in 11571648 Human
chk2 lymphomas This result suggests that mutation of the CHK2 gene may rarely be involved in the development of selected lymphomas. 11699418 Human
chk2 osteosarcomas Mutations of the CHK2 gene are found in some osteosarcomas, but are rare in breast, lung, and ovarian tumors. 11746983 Human
chk2 osteosarcomas Exploiting the genomic sequence of chromosome 22, we looked for mutations in the exons and intron junctions of the CHK2 gene in DNA samples from 170 patients (57 osteosarcomas, 25 other sarcomas, 35 nonsmall-cell lung, 20 ovarian, and 33 breast cancers). 11746983 Human
chk2 osteosarcoma These findings of CHK2 gene mutations are consistent with osteosarcoma being a defining tumor of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. 11746983 Human
chk2 oncogenic Although phospho-dependent binding is important for Chk2 activity, previously uncharacterized phospho-independent FHA domain interactions appear to be the primary target of oncogenic lesions. 12049740 Human
chk2 tumorigenesis To clarify the role of Chk2 in tumorigenesis, we generated gene-targeted Chk2-deficient mice. 12192050 Human
chk2 non-hodgkin lymphomas CHK2-decreased protein expression and infrequent genetic alterations mainly occur in aggressive types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. 12393693 Human
chk2 lymphomas CHK2 protein and mRNA expression levels were similar in all types of lymphomas and reactive samples, and these levels were independent of the proliferative activity of the tumors. 12393693 Human
chk2 lymphomas The high number of chromosomal imbalances in tumors with complete absence of CHK2 protein suggests a role of this gene in chromosomal instability in human lymphomas. 12393693 Human
chk2 tumours These findings, together with the status of the Chk2-p53 DNA-integrity checkpoint, are considered in relation to the origin, biology and pathogenesis of TGCTs, and potential implications of the GI/S defects for the curability of these tumours. 12760379 Human
chk2 ca Molecular examination included an allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction assay for the CHK2 founder mutation (1100delC), genomic sequencing, loss of heterozygosity analysis using CA-repeat microsatellite markers, and haplotype analysis. 15057041 Human
chk2 ca Molecular examination included an allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction assay for the CHK2 founder mutation (1100delC), genomic sequencing, loss of heterozygosity analysis using CA-repeat microsatellite markers, and haplotype analysis. 15057041 Human
chk2 non-small cell lung cancer CHK2-/- cells were remarkably resistant to DNA damage induced apoptosis, mimicking the clinical behavior of non-small cell lung cancer to conventional chemo and radiation therapy. 15125777 Human
chk2 tumorigenesis Collaboration of Brca1 and Chk2 in tumorigenesis. 15131084 Human
chk2 promyelocytic leukaemia (pml) The promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) tumour-suppressor protein potentiates p53 function by regulating post-translational modifications, such as CBP-dependent acetylation and Chk2-dependent phosphorylation, in the PML-Nuclear Body (NB). 15195100 Human
chk2 ovarian cancer In this study we found that in ovarian cancer cells, CHK2 kinase is activated by irofulven while CHK1 kinase is not activated even when treated at higher concentrations of the drug. 15269203 Human
chk2 human colon cancer Finally, experiments done with human colon cancer cell line HCT116 and its isogenic CHK2 knockout derivative; and experiments done by expressing kinase-dead CHK2 in an ovarian cancer cell line demonstrated that CHK2 activation contributes to irofulven-ind 15269203 Human
chk2 ovarian cancer Finally, experiments done with human colon cancer cell line HCT116 and its isogenic CHK2 knockout derivative; and experiments done by expressing kinase-dead CHK2 in an ovarian cancer cell line demonstrated that CHK2 activation contributes to irofulven-ind 15269203 Human
chk2 oncogene This approach is exemplified by two studies in this edition of Oncogene: both use a set of well-characterized human cancers with the objective of identifying novel post-translational control of the tumour suppressor CHK2. 15361833 Human
chk2 tumorigenesis Uterus hyperplasia and increased carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in mice carrying a targeted mutation of the Chk2 phosphorylation site in Brca1. 15485917 Human
chk2 nsclc These findings suggest that the effect of beta-elemene on G2-M arrest in NSCLC cells is mediated partly by a Chk2-dependent mechanism. 15868411 Human
chk2 oncogenes Seven tumour suppressor genes (Chk1, Chk2, Apaf1, Rb1, p53, p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF)) and two oncogenes (N-ras and BRAF) were screened in nine human malignant melanoma (HMM) cell lines for point mutations or small deletions/insertions by DGGE, TGGE and SCC 16077986 Human
chk2 breast carcinoma However, Chk2-dependent senescence and p21 transcriptional induction also occurred in p53-defective SK-BR-3 (breast carcinoma) and HaCaT (immortalized keratinocyte) cells. 16317088 Human
chk2 tumorigenesis The role of Chk2 expression in mammary tumorigenesis, however, is still poorly understood. 16437383 Human
chk2 oncogenes This study was designed to assess the relationship between the expression of Chk2 and well-established prognostic factors, including disease-free-survival and overall survival; and several regulators of cell proliferation and invasiveness in breast carcin 16437383 Human
chk2 tumorigenesis Mammary tumorigenesis following transgenic expression of a dominant negative CHK2 mutant. 16488990 Mouse
chk2 tumorigenesis A truncating allele of the cell cycle checkpoint kinase CHK2 is present in 1% of the population, conferring a moderate increase in breast cancer risk, and inactivation of chk2 enhances mammary tumorigenesis in mice with targeted inactivation of brca1. 16488990 Mouse
chk2 tumor The increased rate of tumor formation in MMTV-CHK2-D347A mice, compared with the relatively low incidence in chk2-null mice, provides a model to study modifiers of CHK2-dependent transformation. 16488990 Mouse
chk2 carcinogenesis Moreover, and consistent with p14ARF being a determinant of CHK2 phosphorylation in lung carcinogenesis, a strong correlation between p14ARF and phospho-CHK2 (Thr68) protein expression is observed in human lung tumors (P < 0.00006). 16705183 Human
chk2 tumor Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated transfer of the antisense chk2 selectively inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. 16741520 Human
chk2 tumors Among these targets, inhibition of chk2 may induce cell death for tumors whose growth depends on enhanced chk2 activity. 16741520 Human
chk2 tumor In this design, M3 exploited the native adenovirus E3 promoters to express antisense chk2 cDNA in a viral replication-dependent fashion, and preferentially silenced the chk2 gene in tumor cells. 16741520 Human
chk2 oncogenic Recently, we have shown that Chk2 associates with the oncogenic Wip1 (PPM1D) phosphatase and that Wip1 acts as a negative regulator of Chk2 during DNA damage response by dephosphorylating phosphorylated Thr-68 in activated Chk2 (Fujimoto, H., Onishi, N., 16798742 Human
chk2 apl Based on this, we propose that a pathway composed of ATR, PML, Chk2, and p53 plays a role in ATO-mediated apoptosis, a notion that is consistent with the observation that Chk2 is genetically intact and mutations in the p53 gene are extremely rare in APL. 16891316 Human
chk2 colorectal carcinoma Defective Mre11-dependent activation of Chk2 by ataxia telangiectasia mutated in colorectal carcinoma cells in response to replication-dependent DNA double strand breaks. 16905549 Human
chk2 colon carcinoma Thus, six of seven colon carcinoma cell lines from the NCI Anticancer Drug Screen are functionally Chk2-deficient in response to replication-mediated DNA double strand breaks. 16905549 Human
chk2 colorectal cancers The high frequency of MRN and Chk2 deficiencies may contribute to genomic instability and therapeutic response to camptothecins in colorectal cancers. 16905549 Human
chk2 tumor Inhibition of one or both of the checkpoint kinases, Chk1 and Chk2, has been proposed as a strategy for improving the efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents in tumor cells. 16931916 Human
chk2 tumor These results imply that Chk2 inhibition has no immediate consequence on survival or cell cycle progression in tumor cells treated with antimetabolites, regardless of their Chk1 status. 16931916 Human
chk2 cancers Germ line mutations in CHEK2, the gene that encodes the Chk2 serine/threonine kinase activated in response to DNA damage, have been found to confer an increased risk of some cancers. 16982735 Human
chk2 tumorigenesis As PINs are generally regarded as precursors of prostatic carcinoma, our results suggest that ATM and Chk2 activation at earlier stages of prostate tumorigenesis suppresses tumor progression, with attenuation of ATM activation leading to cancer progressio 16997395 Human
chk2 tumor As PINs are generally regarded as precursors of prostatic carcinoma, our results suggest that ATM and Chk2 activation at earlier stages of prostate tumorigenesis suppresses tumor progression, with attenuation of ATM activation leading to cancer progressio 16997395 Human
chk2 prostatic carcinoma As PINs are generally regarded as precursors of prostatic carcinoma, our results suggest that ATM and Chk2 activation at earlier stages of prostate tumorigenesis suppresses tumor progression, with attenuation of ATM activation leading to cancer progressio 16997395 Human
chk2 cancer As PINs are generally regarded as precursors of prostatic carcinoma, our results suggest that ATM and Chk2 activation at earlier stages of prostate tumorigenesis suppresses tumor progression, with attenuation of ATM activation leading to cancer progressio 16997395 Human
chk2 tumor Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2, Chk2) emerges as an important signal transducer of cellular responses to DNA damage and a candidate tumor suppressor whose defects contribute to molecular pathogenesis of diverse types of human malignancies, both sporadic and h 16998506 Human
chk2 glioma In addition, the radioresistance of CD133-positive glioma stem cells can be reversed with a specific inhibitor of the Chk1 and Chk2 checkpoint kinases. 17051156 Human
chk2 cancer Our results may have important implications for cancer therapies, as they suggest that partial impairment of the S-phase checkpoint Rad53/Chk2 kinase provides cells with a growth advantage in the presence of drugs that damage DNA. 17062626 Human
chk2 cancer These results identify EDD as a novel mediator in DNA damage signal transduction via CHK2 and emphasize the potential importance of EDD in cancer. 17074762 Human
chk2 human malignant melanoma Mutational analysis of Chk1, Chk2, Apaf1 and Rb1 in human malignant melanoma cell lines. 17143490 Human
chk2 human malignant melanoma Four tumour suppressor genes (Chk1, Chk2, Apaf1 and Rb1) in nine human malignant melanoma cell lines were screened for a loss of gene expression, point mutations and small deletions/insertions by cDNA-based DGGE/SCCP analysis. 17143490 Human
chk2 tumour Four tumour suppressor genes (Chk1, Chk2, Apaf1 and Rb1) in nine human malignant melanoma cell lines were screened for a loss of gene expression, point mutations and small deletions/insertions by cDNA-based DGGE/SCCP analysis. 17143490 Human
chk2 melanoma To our knowledge, this is the first CHK1/CHK2 mutation screening in human melanoma. 17143490 Human
chk2 ovarian tumors Expression of Chk2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 119 ovarian tumors. 17145815 Human
chk2 ovarian tumors Twenty-three percent of ovarian tumors were negative for Chk2 protein by immunohistochemistry, but there was no significant correlation between LOH across the CHEK2 locus and intensity of Chk2 staining (P = 0.12). 17145815 Human
chk2 ovarian cancer Loss of Chk2 protein in ovarian cancer was not associated with allelic status, suggesting that inactivation does not occur as a consequence of haploinsufficiency. 17145815 Human
chk2 tumor Molecular or genetic targeting of Chk2 prevents the release of survivin from mitochondria, enhances DNA damage-induced tumor cell apoptosis, and inhibits the growth of resistant in vivo tumors. 17178848 Human
chk2 tumors Molecular or genetic targeting of Chk2 prevents the release of survivin from mitochondria, enhances DNA damage-induced tumor cell apoptosis, and inhibits the growth of resistant in vivo tumors. 17178848 Human
chk2 tumor Therefore, activated Chk2 circumvents its own tumor-suppressive functions by promoting tumor cell survival. 17178848 Human
chk2 tumors Inhibiting Chk2 in combination with DNA-damaging agents may provide a rational approach for treating resistant tumors. 17178848 Human
chek2 tumor The results suggest that CHEK2 acts as a low-penetrance tumor-suppressor gene in breast cancer and that it makes a significant contribution to familial clustering of breast cancer-including families with only two affected relatives, which are more common 12094328 Human
chek2 tumorigenesis This study provides further evidence that sequence variation in CHEK2 is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and implies that tumorigenesis in association with CHEK2 mutations does not involve loss of the wild type allele. 12454775 Human
chek2 breast cancer We recently reported that a sequence variant in the cell-cycle-checkpoint kinase CHEK2 (CHEK2 1100delC) is a low-penetrance breast cancer-susceptibility allele in noncarriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. 12610780 Human
chek2 metastasis Patients with the CHEK2 variant had a more unfavourable prognosis regarding the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer (relative risk (RR) = 5.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67 to 19.65), distant metastasis-free survival (RR = 2.81; 95% CI 1.20 to 15466005 Human
chek2 primary tumor Tumors with reduced CHEK2 expression had more often larger primary tumor size (pT3-4; nominal significance p = 0.002) compared to tumors with normal staining. 15472904 Human
chek2 carcinogenesis These data supporting the biological relevance of CHEK2 in breast carcinogenesis suggest that further studies examining the joint roles of CHEK2*1100delC carrier status and radiation exposure may be warranted. 16492927 Human
chek2 chronic lymphocytic leukemia Variants in the ATM-BRCA2-CHEK2 axis predispose to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 16574953 Human
chek2 cll Our findings implicate variants in the ATM-BRCA2-CHEK2 DNA damage-response axis with risk of CLL. 16574953 Human
chek2 breast cancer CHEK2 1100delC mutation is frequent among Russian breast cancer patients. 16758118 Human
chek2 breast cancer (bc) This study was aimed to assess the role of CHEK2 1100delC mutation in breast cancer (BC) predisposition in Russia. 16758118 Human
chek2 tumor Fusion of the tumor-suppressor gene CHEK2 and the gene for the regulatory subunit B of protein phosphatase 2 PPP2R2A in childhood teratoma. 16790090 Human
chek2 oncogenic Thus, promoter swapping leading to deregulated CHEK2 expression would be the most likely oncogenic mechanism. 16790090 Human
chek2 tumorigenesis Whereas inactivating mutations of CHEK2 previously have been described in a variety of sporadic tumors and in inherited cancer-predisposing syndromes, PPP2R2A, encoding a regulatory subunit of the multimeric enzyme phosphatase 2, has not been directly imp 16790090 Human
chek2 inherited cancer syndromes Whereas inactivating mutations of CHEK2 previously have been described in a variety of sporadic tumors and in inherited cancer-predisposing syndromes, PPP2R2A, encoding a regulatory subunit of the multimeric enzyme phosphatase 2, has not been directly imp 16790090 Human
chek2 ovarian tumors CHEK2 variants predispose to benign, borderline and low-grade invasive ovarian tumors. 16828850 Human
chek2 cancer OBJECTIVE: Three founder alleles of the CHEK2 gene have been associated with predisposition to a range of cancer types in Poland. 16828850 Human
chek2 ovarian tumors METHODS: To establish if these variants play a role in the etiology of ovarian tumors, we genotyped 1108 Polish women with various types of ovarian tumors and 4000 controls for the three CHEK2 variants. 16828850 Human
chek2 ovarian cystadenomas RESULTS: Positive associations were seen with the CHEK2 I157T missense variant and ovarian cystadenomas (OR = 1.7; P = 0.005), with borderline ovarian cancers (OR = 2.6; P = 0.002) and with low-grade invasive cancers (OR = 2.1; P = 0.04). 16828850 Human
chek2 borderline ovarian cancers RESULTS: Positive associations were seen with the CHEK2 I157T missense variant and ovarian cystadenomas (OR = 1.7; P = 0.005), with borderline ovarian cancers (OR = 2.6; P = 0.002) and with low-grade invasive cancers (OR = 2.1; P = 0.04). 16828850 Human
chek2 invasive cancers RESULTS: Positive associations were seen with the CHEK2 I157T missense variant and ovarian cystadenomas (OR = 1.7; P = 0.005), with borderline ovarian cancers (OR = 2.6; P = 0.002) and with low-grade invasive cancers (OR = 2.1; P = 0.04). 16828850 Human
chek2 ovarian tumor CONCLUSION: These data indicate that CHEK2 variants may predispose to a range of ovarian tumor types of low malignant potential, but not to aggressive cancers. 16828850 Human
chek2 cancers CONCLUSION: These data indicate that CHEK2 variants may predispose to a range of ovarian tumor types of low malignant potential, but not to aggressive cancers. 16828850 Human
chek2 oncogenic Taken together, these results provide evidence that both germline and somatic CHEK2 mutations identified in prostate cancer may contribute to the development of prostate cancer through the reduction of CHEK2 activation in response to DNA damage and/or onc 16835864 Human
chek2 familial pancreatic cancer Low Frequency of CHEK2 Mutations in Familial Pancreatic Cancer. 16858628 Human
chek2 colon cancer Recently, CHEK2 has been identified as multi-organ cancer susceptibility gene associated with a predisposition to breast, prostate and colon cancer. 16858628 Human
chek2 cancers Since these cancers also are associated with some FPC families, we have analysed 35 index patients of German FPC families for CHEK2 mutations. 16858628 Human
chek2 breast cancers CHEK2-positive breast cancers in young Polish women. 16914568 Human
chek2 tumorigenesis Our data suggest that the CHEK2 and TP53 mutations can substitute each other in at least 25% (21/84) of prostate cancers and that DNA damage-signaling pathway plays an important role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis. 16941491 Human
chek2 breast cancer Rare germ line CHEK2 variants identified in breast cancer families encode proteins that show impaired activation. 16982735 Human
chek2 cancers Germ line mutations in CHEK2, the gene that encodes the Chk2 serine/threonine kinase activated in response to DNA damage, have been found to confer an increased risk of some cancers. 16982735 Human
chek2 inherited breast cancer We have previously reported the presence of the common deleterious 1100delC and four rare CHEK2 mutations in inherited breast cancer. 16982735 Human
chek2 breast tumors Pathology and gene expression of hereditary breast tumors associated with BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 gene mutations. 16998498 Human
chek2 tumors BRCA2 tumors present a phenotype opposite to BRCA1 tumors but very similar to sporadic tumors, except that BRCA2 overexpress some DNA repair markers such as CHEK2, show high cytoplasmic expression of RAD51, and are negative for HER-2 amplification and exp 16998498 Human
chek2 tumors Finally, IHC studies in tumors carrying a mutation in CHEK2 are rare and show contradictory results, probably due to the low number of these cases. 16998498 Human
chek2 inherited breast cancer The CHEK2 gene and inherited breast cancer susceptibility. 16998506 Human
chek2 tumor Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2, Chk2) emerges as an important signal transducer of cellular responses to DNA damage and a candidate tumor suppressor whose defects contribute to molecular pathogenesis of diverse types of human malignancies, both sporadic and h 16998506 Human
chek2 tumors Here, we briefly outline the molecular properties, regulation and physiological role of CHEK2, and review in more detail its defects that predispose to tumors, with particular emphasis on familial breast cancer. 16998506 Human
chek2 familial breast cancer Here, we briefly outline the molecular properties, regulation and physiological role of CHEK2, and review in more detail its defects that predispose to tumors, with particular emphasis on familial breast cancer. 16998506 Human
chek2 breast cancer The frequency, penetrance and epidemiological as well as clinical significance of the two most studied breast cancer-predisposing variants of the CHEK2 gene, 1100delC and I157T, are highlighted in more depth, and additional CHEK2 mutations and their cance 16998506 Human
chek2 cancer The frequency, penetrance and epidemiological as well as clinical significance of the two most studied breast cancer-predisposing variants of the CHEK2 gene, 1100delC and I157T, are highlighted in more depth, and additional CHEK2 mutations and their cance 16998506 Human
chek2 tumor These recent findings are considered also from a broader perspective of CHEK2 as the integral component of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated-CHEK2-p53 pathway within the genome integrity maintenance system and a barrier against tumor progression. 16998506 Human
chek2 cancer Finally, the potential value of information about the CHEK2 status in family counseling and optimizition of individualized cancer treatment is discussed. 16998506 Human
chek2 glioblastoma multiforme Variant of the CHEK2 gene as a prognostic marker in glioblastoma multiforme. 17016233 Human
chek2 glioblastomas We investigated a potential role for a CHEK2 gene polymorphism in glioblastomas. 17016233 Human
chek2 glioblastoma METHODS: A genetic polymorphism of the CHEK2 gene (CHEK2 SNP rs2017309 A/T) was genotyped in a series of glioblastoma patients (n = 213) and population controls (n = 192). 17016233 Human
chek2 tumors Subsets of tumors were analyzed for loss of heterozygosity 22q(n = 66), loss of heterozygosity CHEK2 (n = 53), CHEK2 expression (n = 21), and CHEK2 coding sequence alterations (n = 18). 17016233 Human
chek2 glioblastoma RESULTS: No association between the CHEK2 SNP and glioblastoma formation was observed. 17016233 Human
chek2 tumors No CHEK2 coding sequence aberrations or tumors completely lacking CHEK2 protein were identified. 17016233 Human
chek2 glioblastoma CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that a CHEK2 gene polymorphism might correlate with the prognosis of glioblastoma patients. 17016233 Human
chek2 glioblastomas These findings may point to an as yet unrecognized role for the CHEK2 gene in glioblastomas. 17016233 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer Inherited association of breast and colorectal cancer: limited role of CHEK2 compared with high-penetrance genes. 17026620 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer Families were assessed for hereditary breast and colorectal cancer (HBCC) criteria, and all families with eligible individuals were tested for the 1100delC mutation in CHEK2. 17026620 Human
chek2 prostate cancer Germ line mutations in several genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, and CHEK2) whose products are involved in the DNA damage-signaling pathway have been implicated in prostate cancer risk. 17079449 Human
chek2 prostate cancer A large germline deletion in the Chek2 kinase gene is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. 17085682 Human
chek2 cancer BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the Chek2 kinase gene (CHEK2) have been associated with a range of cancer types. 17085682 Human
chek2 breast cancer Recently, a large deletion of exons 9 and 10 of CHEK2 was identified in several unrelated patients with breast cancer of Czech or Slovak origin. 17085682 Human
chek2 prostate cancer PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We assayed for the presence of this deletion, and of three other CHEK2 founder mutations, in 1864 patients with prostate cancer and 5496 controls from Poland. 17085682 Human
chek2 prostate cancer CONCLUSION: A large deletion of exons 9 and 10 of CHEK2 confers an increased risk of prostate cancer in Polish men. 17085682 Human
chek2 hereditary breast cancer CHEK2 mutation and hereditary breast cancer. 17132696 Human
chek2 ovarian cancers Genetic and epigenetic analysis of CHEK2 in sporadic breast, colon, and ovarian cancers. 17145815 Human
chek2 colorectal cancer PURPOSE: Germ-line variants in CHEK2 have been associated with increased breast, thyroid, prostate, kidney, and colorectal cancer risk; however, the prevalence of somatic inactivation of CHEK2 in common cancer types is less clear. 17145815 Human
chek2 common cancer PURPOSE: Germ-line variants in CHEK2 have been associated with increased breast, thyroid, prostate, kidney, and colorectal cancer risk; however, the prevalence of somatic inactivation of CHEK2 in common cancer types is less clear. 17145815 Human
chek2 colon tumors EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We undertook combined genetic and epigenetic analysis of CHEK2 in sporadic primary breast, ovarian, and colon tumors [all exhibiting chromosome 22q loss of heterozygosity (LOH)] and cancer cell lines. 17145815 Human
chek2 cancer EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We undertook combined genetic and epigenetic analysis of CHEK2 in sporadic primary breast, ovarian, and colon tumors [all exhibiting chromosome 22q loss of heterozygosity (LOH)] and cancer cell lines. 17145815 Human
chek2 tumor The proximal CpG cluster was methylated in all tumor and normal DNA, suggesting that this might not represent a true CpG island and is not relevant in the control of CHEK2 expression. 17145815 Human
chek2 ovarian tumors Twenty-three percent of ovarian tumors were negative for Chk2 protein by immunohistochemistry, but there was no significant correlation between LOH across the CHEK2 locus and intensity of Chk2 staining (P = 0.12). 17145815 Human
chek2 colorectal cancers CONCLUSIONS: LOH across the CHEK2 locus is common in sporadic breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancers, but point mutation or epigenetic inactivation of the retained allele is uncommon. 17145815 Human
chek2 cancer A multicenter study of cancer incidence in CHEK2 1100delC mutation carriers. 17164383 Human
chek2 breast cancer The CHEK2 1100delC protein-truncating mutation has a carrier frequency of approximately 0.7% in Northern and Western European populations and confers an approximately 2-fold increased risk of breast cancer. 17164383 Human
chek2 breast cancer Our results suggest that the risk of cancer associated with CHEK2 1100delC mutations is restricted to breast cancer, although we cannot rule out a small increase in overall cancer risk. 17164383 Human
chek2 cancer Our results suggest that the risk of cancer associated with CHEK2 1100delC mutations is restricted to breast cancer, although we cannot rule out a small increase in overall cancer risk. 17164383 Human
cds1 tumour The Cds1 (Chk2) tumour-suppressor protein has been implicated in certain checkpoint responses in mammalian cells. 11025670 Human
rad53 cancer Our results may have important implications for cancer therapies, as they suggest that partial impairment of the S-phase checkpoint Rad53/Chk2 kinase provides cells with a growth advantage in the presence of drugs that damage DNA. 17062626 Human

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