IGDB.NSCLC Gene View
 
Gene Information        (help)
Gene KLK2 Ensembl ENSG00000167751 Chromosome 19 Start 56068501 End 56075634
Description Kallikrein-2 Precursor (EC 3.4.21.35)(Tissue kallikrein-2)(Glandular kallikrein-1)(hGK-1) [Source:UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot;Acc:P20151]
GENE RESOURCES :NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES :PROTEIN RESOURCES :CLINICAL RESOURCES :REFERENCES :
     HGNC : 6363
     Entrez Gene : 3817
     UCSC : uc002ptv.2
     GeneCards : 6363
     RefSeq : NM_001002231
     CCDS : CCDS12808.1
     Uniprot : P20151
     Interpro : P20151
     OMIM : 147960
     GeneTests : KLK2
     CGAP : KLK2
     PMID : 2468530

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Microarray Gene Expression Fold Change Result        (help)
( red: up-regulation / green : down-regulation when p value < 0.01)
( gray background : these probesets might have mapping problems. ref 1, ref 2)
Chip Type Probeset Adenocarcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Fold Change p value q value Fold Change p value q value
 HG_U95  217_at  -0.56  9.22e-4  2.93e-3  -0.37  9.37e-2  1.55e-1
 HG_U95  41721_at  0.23  2.39e-1  3.38e-1  0.36  1.38e-1  2.15e-1
 HG_U133A  209854_s_at  0.02  8.31e-1  8.56e-1  4.39  1.77e-106  1.43e-105
 HG_U133A  209855_s_at  -0.04  5.44e-1  5.96e-1  3.92  2.57e-130  4.32e-129
 HG_U133A  210339_s_at  -0.75  1.06e-7  3.02e-7  1.39  5.56e-25  8.68e-25
 HG_U133_Plus2  1555545_at  0.62  4.46e-4  1.25e-3  0.79  3.66e-4  7.53e-4
 HG_U133_Plus2  209854_s_at  0.45  1.05e-2  2.13e-2  0.46  6.01e-3  1.02e-2
 HG_U133_Plus2  209855_s_at  -0.06  6.25e-1  7.01e-1  0.04  7.54e-1  7.92e-1
 HG_U133_Plus2  210339_s_at  -0.10  5.81e-1  6.61e-1  -0.17  3.54e-1  4.15e-1
 Stanford  5241  0.40  2.85e-1  4.87e-1  0.22  6.85e-1  8.40e-1
 Stanford  6026  0.00  0.00e+0  0.00e+0  0.00  0.00e+0  0.00e+0
 Stanford  20381  -0.56  2.97e-1  5.00e-1  -0.02  9.57e-1  9.82e-1
 Agilent_HS_21.6K  8621  -0.00  8.82e-1  9.35e-1  -0.01  6.39e-1  7.59e-1
 Agilent_HS_21.6K  17449  0.02  4.83e-1  6.60e-1  0.01  8.08e-1  8.80e-1

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Adjuvant Cisplatin/vinorelbine Treatment vs Observation Result        (help) (Pubmed)
( red: up-regulation / green : down-regulation when p value < 0.01)
( gray background color : the mapping problems of probeset. ref_1, ref_2)
Chip Type Probeset Adenocarcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Fold Change p value q value Fold Change p value q value
 HG_U133A  209854_s_at  -0.09  7.52e-1  9.75e-1  -0.17  4.10e-1  1.00e+0
 HG_U133A  209855_s_at  0.14  3.91e-1  8.96e-1  0.09  3.59e-1  1.00e+0
 HG_U133A  210339_s_at  0.37  3.58e-1  8.92e-1  0.56  4.72e-2  1.00e+0

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Microarray Sample Data        (help)
( The log2 value of tumor samples )
(Average : Average log2 value from Normal Samples.)
        HG_U95 - 217_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U95 - 41721_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133A - 209854_s_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133A - 209855_s_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133A - 210339_s_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133_Plus2 - 1555545_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133_Plus2 - 209854_s_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133_Plus2 - 209855_s_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133_Plus2 - 210339_s_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        Stanford - 5241    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        Stanford - 6026    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        Stanford - 20381    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        Agilent_HS_21.6K - 8621    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        Agilent_HS_21.6K - 17449    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

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Cancer Gene Index        (help)

If 0 entry was found, please remove the search key "lung cancer".
Keyword DiseaseData Statement PubMed Organism
hk2 prostate cancer RESULTS: Median delay between venipuncture and prostate cancer diagnosis was 18 years. hK2 and all PSA forms were strongly associated with prostate cancer (all P < .0005). 17264339 Human
hk2 human gastric carcinomas MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of hexokinase 2 (HK2), Bcl-2 and several mitochondria-related gene products were investigated by immunohistochemistry in 257 consecutive human gastric carcinomas, and the results were compared with the clinicopatholog 17352240 Human
hk2 cancer Bcl-2 was not expressed in cases with HK2 positive cancer tissues except for one case, while the voltage-dependent anion channel, complex II and pyruvate dehydrogenase, located in mitochondria, were expressed in all cases. 17352240 Human
hk2 stomach cancer RESULTS: In immunohistochemical analysis, HK2 was overexpressed in 43 out of 257 stomach cancer patients. 17352240 Human
hk2 cancer A tPSA increase of 1 ng/mL was associated with an increase in odds of cancer of 3.69 (95% CI, 2.99 to 4.56); addition of other PSA forms or hK2 did not add to the predictive value of tPSA. tPSA remained predictive for men diagnosed > or = 20 years after v 17264339 Human
klk2 prostate cancer Several other kallikreins, including kallikreins 2 (KLK2) and 11 (KLK11) are emerging as complementary prostate cancer biomarkers. 17275179 Human
hk2 breast cancer When the data were divided by menopausal status, the optimal models to predict breast cancer, which included NAF hK2 or PSA and age, were 100% sensitive and 41% specific in pre- vs. 93% sensitive and 12% specific in postmenopausal women. 17317033 Human
hk2 gross breast cystic disease METHODS: We analyzed milk samples from lactating women, amniotic fluid from pregnant women, and breast cyst fluid from patients with gross breast cystic disease, using a highly sensitive and specific immunoassay for hK2. 10508124 Human
klk2 prostate cancer Human glandular kallikrein (hK2; encoded by the KLK2 gene) is an emerging tumor marker for prostate cancer. 11948967 Human
klk2 tumor Human glandular kallikrein (hK2; encoded by the KLK2 gene) is an emerging tumor marker for prostate cancer. 11948967 Human
klk2 breast cancer Like KLK2 and KLK3, the KLK5 gene is regulated by steroid hormones in the BT-474 breast cancer cell line. 11948967 Human
klk2 human breast cancer We examined previously the steroid hormone regulation of 2 known androgen-regulated kallikreins, KLK3 (encoding PSA) and KLK2 (encoding human kallikrein 2 or hK2) in BT-474, T-47D, ZR75-1, MCF-7, MFM-223 and BT-20 human breast cancer cells and found that 12124798 Human
klk2 breast cancer Every breast cancer cell line exhibited a distinct expression pattern of the nuclear receptor co-regulators examined raising the possibility that the relative levels of these co-activators/-repressors might differentially modulate androgen receptor transc 12124798 Human
klk2 prostate cancer KLK2 and KLK3 have important applications in prostate cancer diagnostics and, more recently, in breast cancer diagnostics. 10675891 Human
klk2 breast cancer KLK2 and KLK3 have important applications in prostate cancer diagnostics and, more recently, in breast cancer diagnostics. 10675891 Human
klk2 tumors We have shown by reverse transcription-PCR, using PCR primers directed to the NH2 terminal coding region of the KLK3 (PSA) gene and the closely related KLK1 and KLK2 genes, that these genes are not expressed in these tumors. 9815828 Human
klk2 breast cancer Several lines of evidence suggest that members of the kallikrein family are involved in various malignancies such as prostate (PSA, KLK2, KLK15), ovarian (KLK4, KLK5, KLK6, KLK8, KLK10), and breast cancer (KLK10, KLK13, KLK14). 12633763 Human
klk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: We examined the relationship between a mutant (T) for wild-type (C) allele substitution of the human kallikrein-2 gene (KLK2), circulating human kallikrein-2 (hK2) levels and prostate cancer risk. 12805332 Human
klk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSION: The C/T polymorphism of the KLK2 gene and circulating levels of hK2 are correlated and, in combination, are highly predictive for prostate cancer. 12805332 Human
hk2 prostate cancer We measured hK2, free PSA, and total PSA (tPSA) in archived blood plasma from 462 participants later diagnosed with prostate cancer and from 1,222 matched controls. 17264339 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Conditional logistic regression was used to test for association of prostate cancer with hK2 and PSA forms measured at baseline. 17264339 Human
hk2 recurrent cancer CONCLUSIONS: Increased concentrations of hK2 in the blood are significantly associated with unfavorable features of prostate cancer, and thK2 is predictive of locally advanced and recurrent cancer in patients with PSA < or =10 microg/L. 17185368 Human
hk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: We examined whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) forms and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) measured at age 44 to 50 years predict long-term risk of incident prostate cancer. 17264339 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: Increased concentrations of hK2 in the blood are significantly associated with unfavorable features of prostate cancer, and thK2 is predictive of locally advanced and recurrent cancer in patients with PSA < or =10 microg/L. 17185368 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Although assays are not yet available to detect specifically hK2, the striking similarities of hK2 to PSA, including selective expression in the prostate, suggest that this marker may also prove useful in prostate cancer management. 7538236 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma The deduced sequence of hK2 is highly homologous to prostate specific antigen (PSA), a widely accepted prognostic indicator of prostate carcinoma. 7664987 Human
hk2 prostate cancer These two properties make hK2 a potentially useful marker for studying prostate cancer. 7664987 Human
hk2 prostate tumor HK1A523 was also utilized to probe prostate tumor cytosols and seminal fluid where putative forms of hK2 were also identified. 8889697 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Prostate-specific human kallikrein (hK2) as a novel marker for prostate cancer. 8950360 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Presently, we are developing a sensitive immunoassay for hK2 protein for the detection of prostate cancer. 8950360 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Our studies indicate that hK2 may be a useful marker for prostate cancer. 8950360 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Although similarities to PSA make hK2 a potential prostate cancer marker, they also impede biochemical characterization of hK2 in those human tissues and body fluids where PSA is abundant. 8968092 Human
hk2 tumor To study the expression, biosynthesis, and processing of hK2, recombinant hK2 was expressed in the adenovirus-induced Syrian hamster tumor cell line AV12-664 (AV12-hK2). 8968092 others
hk2 human prostate carcinoma Recombinant hK2 was also expressed in human prostate carcinoma cell lines, PC3 (PC3-hK2) and DU145 (DU145-hK2), that do not express endogenous hK2 or PSA. 8968092 Human
hk2 prostate tumors Immunohistochemical study suggesting a complementary role of kallikreins hK2 and hK3 (prostate-specific antigen) in the functional analysis of human prostate tumors. 9033261 Human
hk2 human prostate carcinoma The development of monoclonal antibodies directed against prostatic kallikrein hK2 prompted us to evaluate its content, along with that of hK3 (prostate-specific antigen), in human prostate carcinoma. 9033261 Human
hk2 tumors In grade II to IV tumors, histochemical data revealed highly variable hK2 or hK3 content in approximately 25% of tumors. 9033261 Human
hk2 tumors In addition, a few tumors did not express hK3 (n = 3), hK2 (n = 3), or both (n = 3), indicating that some growth patterns of prostatic neoplasia are associated with a lack of secretion or storage of hK3 or hK2 for immunodetection. 9033261 Human
hk2 neoplasia In addition, a few tumors did not express hK3 (n = 3), hK2 (n = 3), or both (n = 3), indicating that some growth patterns of prostatic neoplasia are associated with a lack of secretion or storage of hK3 or hK2 for immunodetection. 9033261 Human
hk2 tumors It was interesting to note that 4% of hK3-negative tumors had detectable hK2. 9033261 Human
hk2 prostatic tumors Because of the importance of hK3 as a serum marker of prostate disorder, this study addresses for the first time the question of the relative importance of both hK3 and hK2 in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of prostatic tumors. 9033261 Human
hk2 prostate cancer We conclude that hK2 may add new information to prostate cancer diagnosis and characterization. 9033261 Human
hk2 prostatic cancer Our results show that kallikrein hK2 has plasmin-like activity and suggest that it could be the initiator of a proteolytic cascade leading to prostatic cancer invasion. 9180162 Human
hk2 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) expression in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma: a novel prostate cancer marker. 9187691 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) expression in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma: a novel prostate cancer marker. 9187691 Human
hk2 prostate cancer OBJECTIVES: We describe the expression of a potentially new tumor marker, human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), that may be useful as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. 9187691 Human
hk2 tumor OBJECTIVES: We describe the expression of a potentially new tumor marker, human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), that may be useful as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. 9187691 Human
hk2 high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia METHODS: We evaluated 257 radical prostatectomy specimens removed at the Mayo Clinic with pathologic Stage 12 adenocarcinoma to compare the cytoplasmic expression of hK2, PSA, and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in benign tissue, high-grade prostatic int 9187691 Human
hk2 high-grade pin The intensity and extent of hK2 expression for both antibodies were greater in cancer than high-grade PIN; furthermore, high-grade PIN was greater than benign epithelium. 9187691 Human
hk2 cancer The intensity and extent of hK2 expression for both antibodies were greater in cancer than high-grade PIN; furthermore, high-grade PIN was greater than benign epithelium. 9187691 Human
hk2 cancer Cases of Gleason primary grade 4 and 5 cancer showed hK2 staining in almost every cell, whereas there was greater heterogeneity of staining in lower grades of cancer. 9187691 Human
hk2 carcinoma In marked contrast to hK2, PSA and PAP immunoreactivity was most intense in benign epithelium and stained to a lesser extent in PIN and carcinoma. 9187691 Human
hk2 cancer The number of immunoreactive cells for hK2 and PSA was not predictive of cancer recurrence. 9187691 Human
hk2 high-grade pin CONCLUSIONS: hK2 was expressed in every cancer, and the expression incrementally increased from benign epithelium to high-grade PIN and adenocarcinoma. 9187691 Human
hk2 cancer CONCLUSIONS: hK2 was expressed in every cancer, and the expression incrementally increased from benign epithelium to high-grade PIN and adenocarcinoma. 9187691 Human
hk2 cancer The expression of hK2 and PSA was not predictive of cancer recurrence in patients with Stage T2 carcinoma. 9187691 Human
hk2 carcinoma The expression of hK2 and PSA was not predictive of cancer recurrence in patients with Stage T2 carcinoma. 9187691 Human
hk2 tumor Expression of hK2 indicates that this kallikrein antigen is both prostate localized and tumor associated. 9187691 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Further studies are needed to determine whether tissue immunoreactivity of hK2 will prove clinically useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. 9187691 Human
hk2 breast cancer Expression of human prostate-specific glandular kallikrein protein (hK2) in the breast cancer cell line T47-D. 9205072 Human
hk2 breast cancer In this study, we have characterized the presence of hK2 in an androgen-responsive breast cancer cell line T47-D at both the protein and mRNA levels with an immunoassay, Western blot analysis, Northern blot analysis, and the reverse transcription-PCR. 9205072 Human
hk2 breast cancer Our study demonstrates that hK2, a serine protease thought to be found only in prostate-related tissues and fluids, is also produced in a breast cancer cell line T47-D after steroid stimulation. 9205072 Human
hk2 breast cancer This finding suggests that hK2 may have a potential role in breast cancer as well as prostatic cancer and will be the impetus for further studies of hK2 distribution and function. 9205072 Human
hk2 prostatic cancer This finding suggests that hK2 may have a potential role in breast cancer as well as prostatic cancer and will be the impetus for further studies of hK2 distribution and function. 9205072 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Our results indicate that hK2 is responsible for the activation of proPSA, a finding that may be very important for understanding of the role of these two kallikreins in the reproductive system and in prostate cancer biology. 9299549 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human kallikrein 2 (hK2), a serine protease closely related to PSA that also is expressed predominantly in the prostate, may be a new marker for prostate cancer. 9306417 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Molecular forms of prostate-specific antigen and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) in urine are not clinically useful for early detection and staging of prostate cancer. 9372881 Human
hk2 prostate cancer We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the clinical usefulness of this PSA ratio as well as the use of the different molecular forms of PSA and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) in urine for detection and staging of prostate cancer. 9372881 Human
hk2 prostate cancer There was no significant difference between the urinary levels of any of the molecular forms of PSA or hK2 between men with prostate cancer and men with BPH. 9372881 Human
hk2 bph There was no significant difference between the urinary levels of any of the molecular forms of PSA or hK2 between men with prostate cancer and men with BPH. 9372881 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Among men with prostate cancer, neither urinary hK2 nor urinary levels of any of the molecular forms of PSA correlated with age, pathologic stage, or Gleason grade. 9372881 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Furthermore, measurement of the molecular forms of PSA and hK2 in urine did not improve the detection or staging of prostate cancer over serum PSA alone. 9372881 Human
hk2 prostate cancer BACKGROUND: Human glandular kallikrein (hK2) is a new potential marker for prostate cancer. 9428387 Human
hk2 human prostate cancer Prostate-specific antigen (hK3) and human prostatic glandular kallikrein (hK2) in the detection of early stage human prostate cancer. 9579381 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Both hK2 and hK2-alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) complexes have been identified in sera of patients with prostate cancer (PCa). 9610595 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia The mean serum concentration of hK2 in normal control samples was low (0.33 and 0.37 ng/mL for normal healthy men and women, respectively) but was elevated in patients with prostate disease (0.86 and 6.77 ng/mL for patients with benign prostatic hyperplas 9610595 Human
hk2 prostate cancer We investigated whether the hK2 serum measurement may improve the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in patients with total PSA of 4 to 10 ng/mL (diagnostic "gray zone"). 9730444 Human
hk2 bph RESULTS: The serum hK2 could be detected in all samples and in 76 (84.4%) of 90 samples (PCa, n = 18; BPH, n = 58) at given functional sensitivity level. 9730444 Human
hk2 bph For these cases the median concentration of hK2 was 0.135 ng/mL in PCa and 0.09 ng/mL in BPH (P < 0.1). 9730444 Human
hk2 bph The median hK2/total PSA ratio was 2% for PCa and 1.6% for BPH (P < 0.2). 9730444 Human
hk2 bph The median free/total PSA ratio was 0.122 for PCa and 0.215 for BPH (P < 0.0008) and the hK2/free PSA ratio was 0.139 for PCa and 0.075 for BPH (P < 0.000003). 9730444 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma Detection of human glandular kallikrein, hK2, as its precursor form and in complex with protease inhibitors in prostate carcinoma serum. 9733142 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma Forms of human glandular kallikrein (kK2) in prostate carcinoma serum were identified using monoclonal antibodies specific for hK2 and prohK2. 9733142 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In prostate cancer patient sera containing high levels of hK2 (>100 ng/ml), hK2 exists as a complex with alpha1-antichymotrypsin with a molecular weight of 90 kDa. 9733142 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Kallikrein hK2 is a new potential marker of prostate cancer. 9746244 Human
hk2 poorly differentiated cancer Although both kallikreins are produced by the same secretory epithelial cells in the prostate, hK2 is associated more with prostate tumors than PSA and is highly expressed in poorly differentiated cancer cells. 9759557 Human
hk2 prostate tumors Although both kallikreins are produced by the same secretory epithelial cells in the prostate, hK2 is associated more with prostate tumors than PSA and is highly expressed in poorly differentiated cancer cells. 9759557 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Specific monoclonal antibodies to hK2 have now demonstrated that serum levels of hK2, like PSA, are correlated with prostate cancer. 9759557 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) has been proposed as a potential diagnostic marker for prostate cancer that could complement the current PSA test. 9761243 Human
hk2 bph Both the free to total PSA ratio and the hK2 to free PSA ratio discriminated well between PCa and BPH patients. 9874461 Human
hk2 bph Within the range of total PSA of 4-10 ng/mL (PCa [n = 11] and BPH [n = 41]) the hK2 to free PSA ratio had a specificity of 63.4% and 90.9% sensitivity (area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve = 0.85) whereas the free to total PSA rati 9874461 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human glandular kallikrein (hK2) is a possible new marker for prostate cancer that is homologous to prostate specific antigen. 9851894 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Recent data indicate that human glandular kallikrein (hK2), a protein with high homology to PSA, may be an additional serum marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. 10545066 Human
hk2 cancer At 95% specificity, the hK2/free PSA ratio identified 25% of patients with total PSA between 2.5 and 4.5 microg/L who had cancer. 10545066 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Differences in immunohistochemistry and substrate specificity suggest hK2 may provide unique information for early detection and characterization of prostate cancer. 10565744 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Discrimination of men with prostate cancer from those with benign disease by measurements of human glandular kallikrein 2 (HK2) in serum. 10604382 Human
hk2 localized prostate cancer MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum from healthy controls, from men with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa), and advanced PCa were analyzed for hK2 (using an in-house-research assay with detection limit of 0.05 ng./mL a 10604382 Human
hk2 bph RESULTS: HK2 concentrations were <0.05 ng./mL in 50/50 healthy volunteers but significantly higher (p <0.0001) and > or =0.05 ng./mL in 28/54 (52%) patients with BPH. 10604382 Human
hk2 cancer The median hK2 levels ranged from 1.3 to 1.6% of those of PSA-T in all three patient groups, whereas percent hK2/PSA-F and hK2 x PSA-T/PSA-F levels were significantly higher in cancer patients compared with those with BPH. 10604382 Human
hk2 bph The median hK2 levels ranged from 1.3 to 1.6% of those of PSA-T in all three patient groups, whereas percent hK2/PSA-F and hK2 x PSA-T/PSA-F levels were significantly higher in cancer patients compared with those with BPH. 10604382 Human
hk2 bph In the discrimination of clinically localized PCa from BPH, hK2 x PSA-T/PSA-F gave the largest area under the receiver operating curve (AUC = 0.81) and significantly (p = 0.025) larger AUC than PSA-T alone (0.70). 10604382 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination of patients with benign prostate disease from those with prostate cancer was significantly enhanced using measurements of hK2 in addition to those of PSA-T and PSA-F. 10604382 Human
hk2 breast tumours Expression of a prostate-associated protein, human glandular kallikrein (hK2), in breast tumours and in normal breast secretions. 10646889 Human
hk2 breast carcinoma The recent demonstration of human glandular kallikrein (hK2) expression in a breast carcinoma cell line has suggested that this putatively prostate-restricted, steroid hormone-regulated protease may also be expressed in breast epithelium in vivo and secre 10646889 Human
hk2 breast tumour Given that the only substrate yet identified for hK2 activity is the precursor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), the expression of which in breast carcinomas may be associated with favourable prognosis, our purpose was to examine the expression pattern 10646889 Human
hk2 breast carcinomas Given that the only substrate yet identified for hK2 activity is the precursor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), the expression of which in breast carcinomas may be associated with favourable prognosis, our purpose was to examine the expression pattern 10646889 Human
hk2 breast carcinomas Cytosolic extracts of 336 primary breast carcinomas prepared for routine oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) analysis, as well as 31 nipple aspirates from six women with non-diseased mammary glands, were assayed for hK2 and PSA using im 10646889 Human
hk2 tumour In the tumour extracts, measurable hK2 and PSA concentrations were detected in 53% and 73% of cases respectively, and were positively correlated to each other (r = 0.59, P = 0.0001). 10646889 Human
hk2 tumours Higher concentrations of PSA and hK2 were found in tumours expressing steroid hormone receptors (P = 0.0001 for PSA and P = 0.0001 for hK2, by Wilcoxon tests for both ER and PR), and both PSA (r = 0.25, P = 0.0001) and hK2 (r = 0.22, P = 0.0001) correlate 10646889 Human
hk2 prostate cancer BACKGROUND: Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) is expressed in the prostate and is present in serum from men with prostate cancer. 10657376 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: Cyproterone acetate therapy causes dramatic suppression of plasma and urinary PSA and hK2 in men without prostate cancer. 10687981 Human
hk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: We hypothesize that serum human glandular kallikrein-2 (hK2) levels predict the presence of prostate cancer among men prescreened by prostate-specific antigen (PSA). 10694554 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The odds ratio for detection of prostate cancer was determined for hK2 measurements, controlling for age, total-PSA level, digital rectal examination, and symptoms of urinary obstruction. 10694554 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The crude odds ratio for prostate cancer detection for patients in the highest quartile of hK2 level was 5.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 12.1; P =.0001) compared with patients in the lowest quartile. 10694554 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSION: Among men prescreened with PSA for prostate cancer, patients with high hK2 measurements have a five- to eight-fold increase in risk for prostate cancer, adjusting for PSA level and other established risk factors. hK2 measurements may be a usef 10694554 Human
hk2 tumors Between G2 and G3 tumors, hK2 increased threefold (0.14 versus 0.43 ng/mL, P <0.02), and tPSA showed no significant increase (12.1 versus 26.5 ng/mL, P <0.18). 10736487 Human
hk2 tumors In the tPSA range of 3 to 15 ng/mL, hK2, the hK2/fPSA ratio, and the fPSA/(tPSA x hK2) ratio differentiated between the G1/G2 and G3 tumors, and tPSA, the f/t PSA ratio, and PSA-ACT did not. 10736487 Human
hk2 cancer PURPOSE: We measured serum levels of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) in patients with prostate cancer treated with radical retropubic prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer to determine whether preoperative hK2 levels discriminate stage 10751864 Human
hk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: We measured serum levels of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) in patients with prostate cancer treated with radical retropubic prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer to determine whether preoperative hK2 levels discriminate stage 10751864 Human
hk2 localized prostate cancer PURPOSE: We measured serum levels of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) in patients with prostate cancer treated with radical retropubic prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer to determine whether preoperative hK2 levels discriminate stage 10751864 Human
hk2 prostate cancer OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical value of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) compared with free (f) and total (t) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the early detection of prostate cancer (PCa). 10792083 Human
hk2 breast cancer Differential steroid hormone regulation of human glandular kallikrein (hK2) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in breast cancer cell lines. 10832596 Human
hk2 breast cancer We have investigated the steroid hormone regulation of human glandular kallikrein (hK2) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the breast cancer cell lines BT-474, T-47D, MFM-223, MCF-7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-435, and BT-20. 10832596 Human
hk2 prostate cancer METHODS: LNCaP, a prostate cancer cell line that secretes both PSA and hK2, was used as a model to study the biosynthesis and processing of PSA and hK2 upon androgen induction. 10906742 Human
hk2 cancer OBJECTIVES: To study quantitatively the relative expression of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in paired (from the same patient) cancerous and noncancerous prostatic tissue to evaluate whether these proteins are over 10962338 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that both PSA and hK2 are down-regulated in prostate cancer compared with noncancerous tissue. 10962338 Human
hk2 hyperplastic The variation in signal intensities for PSA and hK2 correlated significantly in benign tissue (P >0.05), but not in benign hyperplastic and malignant specimens (P <0.05). 11018639 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human glandular kallikrein (hK2) is an androgen regulated protein primarily expressed in the prostate and recently identified as a novel prostate cancer marker. 11064155 Human
hk2 metastatic disease We developed a highly sensitive splice variant-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for human glandular kallikrein (hK2) mRNA and tested its ability to detect metastatic disease in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. 11156423 Human
hk2 localized prostate cancer We developed a highly sensitive splice variant-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for human glandular kallikrein (hK2) mRNA and tested its ability to detect metastatic disease in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. 11156423 Human
hk2 human prostate cancer In this study, we show the interactive effects of T3 and androgens on the growth response and expression of the prostate-specific genes, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) and hK2 (human glandular kallikrein), in the human prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. 10098501 Human
hk2 prostate tumor Insertion of the hK2 enhancer/promoter into adenovirus to drive the E1A genes of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) created an attenuated replication competent adenovirus variant Calydon virus (CV) 763, which replicates similarly to wild-type adenovirus in prostate 10197620 Human
hk2 tumor Insertion of the hK2 enhancer/promoter into adenovirus to drive the E1A genes of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) created an attenuated replication competent adenovirus variant Calydon virus (CV) 763, which replicates similarly to wild-type adenovirus in prostate 10197620 Human
hk2 prostate cancer OBJECTIVES: To describe the expression of a potential new tumor marker, human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), in primary adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases that may be useful as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis and monito 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph-node metastases OBJECTIVES: To describe the expression of a potential new tumor marker, human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), in primary adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases that may be useful as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis and monito 10223487 Human
hk2 tumor OBJECTIVES: To describe the expression of a potential new tumor marker, human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), in primary adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases that may be useful as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis and monito 10223487 Human
hk2 prostate adenocarcinoma METHODS: We evaluated 151 radical prostatectomy specimens removed at Mayo Clinic with node-positive adenocarcinoma to compare cytoplasmic expression of hK2, pro-hK2, and PSA in benign tissue, prostate adenocarcinoma, and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph-node metastases METHODS: We evaluated 151 radical prostatectomy specimens removed at Mayo Clinic with node-positive adenocarcinoma to compare cytoplasmic expression of hK2, pro-hK2, and PSA in benign tissue, prostate adenocarcinoma, and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph-node metastases The intensity and extent of hK2 expression was greater in lymph node metastases than in primary cancer; furthermore, the expression in primary cancer was greater than in benign epithelium. 10223487 Human
hk2 primary cancer The intensity and extent of hK2 expression was greater in lymph node metastases than in primary cancer; furthermore, the expression in primary cancer was greater than in benign epithelium. 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph-node metastases In marked contrast to mature hK2, monoclonal PSA immunoreactivity was expressed to a higher extent in primary cancer than in lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 primary cancer In marked contrast to mature hK2, monoclonal PSA immunoreactivity was expressed to a higher extent in primary cancer than in lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 cancer CONCLUSIONS: hK2 was expressed in every cancer, and the expression incrementally increased from benign epithelium to primary cancer and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph-node metastases CONCLUSIONS: hK2 was expressed in every cancer, and the expression incrementally increased from benign epithelium to primary cancer and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 primary cancer CONCLUSIONS: hK2 was expressed in every cancer, and the expression incrementally increased from benign epithelium to primary cancer and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph-node metastases Tissue expression of hK2 appears to be regulated independently of PSA in benign epithelium, adenocarcinoma, and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 prostate cancer BACKGROUND: Studies demonstrating that human glandular kallikrein (hK2) is increased in prostate cancer patients have prompted speculation that this marker may of use in addition to prostate-specific antigen (PSA). 10351987 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The median serum concentration of hK2 in healthy men without prostate cancer was 26 ng/L. 10351988 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The median concentration of hK2 was 72 ng/L for men having prostate cancer with lower Gleason scores compared with 116 ng/L for men with more advanced cancer. 10351988 Human
hk2 advanced cancer The median concentration of hK2 was 72 ng/L for men having prostate cancer with lower Gleason scores compared with 116 ng/L for men with more advanced cancer. 10351988 Human
hk2 tumor Expression of hK2 is elevated in the tumor epithelium compared to benign prostate tissue. 10463585 Human
hk2 tumor This 64-kDa SDS-PAGE stable complex is elevated in the tumor and is approximately 10% of total hK2. 10463585 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The physiological role of PI-6 in the prostate and its relationship to hK2 and prostate cancer are under investigation. 10463585 Human
hk2 breast cancer Recently, it has been demonstrated that hK2 is expressed in the breast cancer cell line T-47D after stimulation by steroid hormones, and we reported that hK2 can be detected in a subset of breast tumor extracts. 10508124 Human
hk2 breast tumor Recently, it has been demonstrated that hK2 is expressed in the breast cancer cell line T-47D after stimulation by steroid hormones, and we reported that hK2 can be detected in a subset of breast tumor extracts. 10508124 Human
hk2 breast cyst METHODS: We analyzed milk samples from lactating women, amniotic fluid from pregnant women, and breast cyst fluid from patients with gross breast cystic disease, using a highly sensitive and specific immunoassay for hK2. 10508124 Human
hk2 gross breast cystic disease METHODS: We analyzed milk samples from lactating women, amniotic fluid from pregnant women, and breast cyst fluid from patients with gross breast cystic disease, using a highly sensitive and specific immunoassay for hK2. 10508124 Human
hk2 breast cysts We suggest that the female breast may produce hK2 and provide evidence that hK2 may have value as an additional marker for the discrimination between type I and type II breast cysts. 10508124 Human
hk2 tumor To demonstrate that the repression effects on AR expression can actually reduce its function, we found that quercetin inhibited the secretion of the prostate-specific, androgen-regulated tumor markers, PSA and hK2. 11238180 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Unlike prostate-specific antigen (PSA/hK3), whose expression displays an inverse correlation with prostate cancer grade and stage, human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) is upregulated in higher grade and stage disease. 11268287 Human
hk2 prostate cancer These results suggest that the hk2 multienhancer/promoter should be a powerful novel reagent for safer targeted gene therapy of prostate cancer. 11268287 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), another serine protease closely related to PSA, is also gaining ground as a promising diagnostic tool in prostate cancer. 11297583 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Similar rates of exponential decrease in serum concentrations of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA complexed to alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) in prostate cancer patients treated with GnRH-analogues. 11304725 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: For the majority of patients with hormonally treated prostate cancer the serum concentrations of PSA-T, PSA-F, PSA-ACT, and hK2 decreased slowly in parallel and mono-exponentially after initiation of treatment. 11304725 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Role of hK2, free PSA, and complexed PSA measurements in the very early detection of prostate cancer. 11340291 Human
hk2 tumour To elucidate the putative biological role of prostatic kallikreins hK2 and hK3 (prostate-specific antigen) in tumour progression, we analyzed the degradation of IGFBP-2, -3, -4 and -5 by these two tissue kallikreins. 11358513 Human
hk2 metastatic disease PSA and hK2 discriminated PC patients with biochemically progressive and advanced disease from the controls and from the aggressive distant metastatic disease. 11486050 Human
hk2 localized prostate cancer BACKGROUND: We measured serum levels of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) in patients treated with radical retropubic prostatectomy (rrP) for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) with a total PSA (tPSA)-level below 10 ng/ml to investigate whether h 11582588 Human
hk2 localized prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: Highly significant differences in serum concentration enable hK2 to be a powerful predictor of organ-confined disease and pathologic stage of clinically localized prostate cancer, especially in the PSA-range below 10 ng/ml. 11582588 Human
hk2 prostate cancer As such, there are important clinical consequences for the application of hK2 for the adequate treatment of prostate cancer patients, i.e., the option of nerve-sparing surgery. 11582588 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The role of molecular forms of prostate-specific antigen (PSA or hK3) and of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer and in extra-prostatic disease. 11720279 Human
hk2 prostate adenocarcinoma Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) is very similar to PSA, but expressed at higher levels in prostate adenocarcinoma than in normal prostate epithelium. 11720279 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Blood testing for hK2 combined with different PSA forms improves discrimination of men with benign prostatic disease from those with prostate cancer. 11720279 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma Human kallikrein 2 (hK2), but not prostate-specific antigen (PSA), rapidly complexes with protease inhibitor 6 (PI-6) released from prostate carcinoma cells. 11745444 Human
hk2 prostate cancer We have previously identified a novel complex between human kallikrein 2 (hK2) and protease inhibitor 6 (PI-6) in prostate cancer tissue. 11745444 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia METHODS: The expression levels of both hK2 and human prostate specific antigen (hPSA) were compared at the mRNA and protein levels by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry techniques in tissue specimens from patients with benign prostatic h 11753974 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma METHODS: The expression levels of both hK2 and human prostate specific antigen (hPSA) were compared at the mRNA and protein levels by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry techniques in tissue specimens from patients with benign prostatic h 11753974 Human
hk2 tumor In benign tissue, the mean level of hK2 mRNA was 82% of the respective value of hPSA (P < 0.003), whereas, in tumor tissue, the mean hK2 expression level was 21% higher than that of hPSA (P < 0.01). 11753974 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma CONCLUSIONS: Gene amplification of hKLK2 may be one of the factors leading to higher expression of hK2 in prostate carcinoma. 11753974 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma The results suggest the potential value of hK2 in the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma through mRNA analyses and gene amplification. 11753974 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, while seminal plasma and prostate-derived proteases can cleave IGFBP-3, in patients with prostate cancer the circulating IGFBP-3 is not significantly proteolyzed by either PSA, hK2, or trypsin. 11816019 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human glandular kallikrein (hK2; encoded by the KLK2 gene) is an emerging tumor marker for prostate cancer. 11948967 Human
hk2 tumor Human glandular kallikrein (hK2; encoded by the KLK2 gene) is an emerging tumor marker for prostate cancer. 11948967 Human
hk2 tumors Generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for human kallikrein 2 (hK2) using hK2-expressing tumors. 11967950 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Like PSA, hK2 is expressed primarily in the prostate, making it an attractive bio-marker for prostate cancer development. 11967950 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In order to further elucidate the possible roles of hK2 in prostate cancer, we have generated a panel of hK2-specific, non-PSA cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies. 11967950 Human
hk2 tumor Human hK2 cDNA was transfected into a BALB/c tumor cell line and used to immunize both BALB/c and PSA-expressing BALB/c.PSA transgenic mice. 11967950 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: These hK2-specific antibodies illustrate a novel approach for constructing B-cell hybridomas and provide useful reagents to examine the role of hK2 in the biology and detection of prostate cancer. 11967950 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Recently, hK2 has proven to be a useful marker that can be used in combination with prostate specific antigen for screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer. 12047384 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The cleavage by hK2 of certain substrates in the proteolytic cascade suggest that the kallikrein may be involved in prostate cancer development; however, there has been very little other progress toward its biochemical characterization or elucidation of i 12047384 Human
hk2 cancer Moreover, three new putative hK2 protein substrates, shown elsewhere to be involved in the biology of the cancer, have been identified thus reinforcing the importance of hK2 in prostate cancer development. 12047384 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Moreover, three new putative hK2 protein substrates, shown elsewhere to be involved in the biology of the cancer, have been identified thus reinforcing the importance of hK2 in prostate cancer development. 12047384 Human
hk2 human breast cancer We examined previously the steroid hormone regulation of 2 known androgen-regulated kallikreins, KLK3 (encoding PSA) and KLK2 (encoding human kallikrein 2 or hK2) in BT-474, T-47D, ZR75-1, MCF-7, MFM-223 and BT-20 human breast cancer cells and found that 12124798 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Prostate-specific antigen (PSA; hK3) and, more recently, human glandular kallikrein (hK2) are widely used tumor markers for prostate cancer. 12142373 Human
hk2 tumor Prostate-specific antigen (PSA; hK3) and, more recently, human glandular kallikrein (hK2) are widely used tumor markers for prostate cancer. 12142373 Human
hk2 prostate cancer We and others have shown that prostate-specific antigen [PSA, also known as human kallikrein (hK) 3] is a marker of breast as well as prostate cancer, that hK2 and hK3 are highly homologous at the DNA and protein level and that the level of progesterone, 12209605 Human
hk2 breast cancer We hypothesized that nipple aspiration fluid (NAF) hK2 and hK3 levels are (i) lower in black than white women; (ii) independently associated with breast cancer; (iii) influenced by menopausal status; and (iv) in combination are more informative about whet 12209605 Human
hk2 cancer NAF was assayed for hK2 and hK3, and the results were stratified by ethnicity, presence or absence of cancer and menopausal status. 12209605 Human
hk2 breast cancer Using logistic regression and considering hK2, hK3, hK2/hK3 and ethnicity, hK3 was significantly associated with breast cancer in both pre- (p < 0.001) and postmenopausal women (p = 0.023). 12209605 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In addition to prostate-specific antigen (PSA, hK3), which is an established tumor marker for prostate cancer diagnosis and follow-up, and human glandular kallikrein (hK2), an emerging prostate cancer biomarker, accumulating evidence indicates that many o 12218299 Human
hk2 tumor In addition to prostate-specific antigen (PSA, hK3), which is an established tumor marker for prostate cancer diagnosis and follow-up, and human glandular kallikrein (hK2), an emerging prostate cancer biomarker, accumulating evidence indicates that many o 12218299 Human
hk2 metastases to lymph nodes We have previously shown that RT-PCR amplification of a native human glandular kallikrein fragment (hK2-L), but not a splice-variant hK2 transcript (hK2-U), performed preoperatively on peripheral blood before radical prostatectomy is an independent predic 12384565 Human
hk2 prostate cancer We evaluated the ability of preoperative peripheral blood RT-PCR for PSA and hK2 to predict prostate cancer progression after surgery. 12384565 Human
hk2 cancers This family harbours several genes aberrantly expressed in various cancers as well as established (PSA/hK3, hK2) and potential (hK6, hK10) cancer markers. 12439719 Human
hk2 cancer This family harbours several genes aberrantly expressed in various cancers as well as established (PSA/hK3, hK2) and potential (hK6, hK10) cancer markers. 12439719 Human
hk2 prostate cancer BACKGROUND: In recent studies serum levels of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) demonstrated significant differences in pathologically organ-confined versus non-organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa). 12518322 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Serum human glandular kallikrein (hK2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) improve the discrimination between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with total and %free PSA. 12518327 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia Serum human glandular kallikrein (hK2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) improve the discrimination between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with total and %free PSA. 12518327 Human
hk2 cancer BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence describing an association of hK2 and IGFs with cancer. 12518327 Human
hk2 prostatic carcinoma The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in serum levels of hK2 and IGFs in a large group of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostatic carcinoma (CaP) and to examine the value of these variables, as well as their various 12518327 Human
hk2 bph RESULTS: hK2 and IGF-1 concentrations were increased in CaP patients, in comparison to BPH patients. hK2/free PSA and free/total PSA ratios (area under the curve, AUC = 0.70) were stronger predictors of prostate cancer than the IGF-1/total PSA ratio (AUC 12518327 Human
hk2 human prostate cancer Dissociation between androgen responsiveness for malignant growth vs. expression of prostate specific differentiation markers PSA, hK2, and PSMA in human prostate cancer models. 12539223 Human
hk2 human prostate cancer In order to validate this hypothesis, we used a series of human prostate cancer models [i.e., LAPC-4, CWR22Rv1, MDA PCA-2b, LNCaP, and C4-2B (derived from LNCaP)] to test whether there is a consistent concordance between androgen responsive regulation for 12539223 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Additional independent mechanisms occur in prostate cancer cells for regulation of expression for even the highly related PSA and hK2 genes. 12539223 Human
hk2 thyroid cancer Human kallikrein 2 (hK2) mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with thyroid cancer: a novel molecular marker? 12618898 Human
hk2 thyroid cancer METHODS: A nested RT-PCR protocol for the detection of hK2 mRNA was established, and blood samples of 72 patients with a history of thyroid cancer, 10 patients with current metastases of thyroid cancer, and 32 volunteers were tested. 12618898 Human
hk2 metastases METHODS: A nested RT-PCR protocol for the detection of hK2 mRNA was established, and blood samples of 72 patients with a history of thyroid cancer, 10 patients with current metastases of thyroid cancer, and 32 volunteers were tested. 12618898 Human
hk2 thyroid cancer CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study reporting on hK2 as a potential molecular marker for patients with thyroid cancer. 12618898 Human
hk2 thyroid cancer We could demonstrate a correlation between diagnosis of thyroid cancer and the positive signal for hK2 in the RT-PCR assay. 12618898 Human
hk2 prostate cancer BACKGROUND: Measurement of human kallikrein 2 (hK2) has improved early detection and staging of prostate cancer. 12651813 Human
hk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: To compare the detection of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) mRNA expression in archival lymph nodes with disease progression, the development of prostate cancer metastases, and mortality in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for locally 12663708 Human
hk2 metastases PURPOSE: To compare the detection of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) mRNA expression in archival lymph nodes with disease progression, the development of prostate cancer metastases, and mortality in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for locally 12663708 Human
hk2 multiple tumor Multiple tumor marker analyses (PSA, hK2, PSCA, trp-p8) in primary prostate cancers using quantitative RT-PCR. 12792797 Human
hk2 primary prostate cancers Multiple tumor marker analyses (PSA, hK2, PSCA, trp-p8) in primary prostate cancers using quantitative RT-PCR. 12792797 Human
hk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: We examined the relationship between a mutant (T) for wild-type (C) allele substitution of the human kallikrein-2 gene (KLK2), circulating human kallikrein-2 (hK2) levels and prostate cancer risk. 12805332 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The adjusted odds ratio for prostate cancer for patients in the fourth quartile of hK2 compared with the first quartile was 4.33 (95% CI, 2.9 to 6.4; P =.0001). 12805332 Human
hk2 prostate cancer When combined, the adjusted odds ratio for having prostate cancer was 13.92 (95% CI, 6.6 to 29.2; P =.0001) for patients with high hK2 levels and at least one T allele. 12805332 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSION: The C/T polymorphism of the KLK2 gene and circulating levels of hK2 are correlated and, in combination, are highly predictive for prostate cancer. 12805332 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Total, free and complexed PSA and hK2 for early detection of prostate cancer. 12841068 Human
hk2 cancer PSA/cytokeratin and hK2 expression were associated with cancer involvement of seminal vesicles, higher Gleason sum, and a positive RT-PCR-hK2 assay result. 12907647 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Although IHC for PSA, cytokeratin, and hK2 appear to be more specific methods for detecting biologically and clinically significant prostate cancer micrometastases in histopathologically normal PLN, RT-PCR-hK2 appears to be a more sensitive method that ma 12907647 Human
hk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: We investigated the value of serum measurements for glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), and free (f) and total (t) prostate specific antigen (PSA) in a second round of biannual screening for prostate cancer. 14501718 Human
hk2 prostate cancer RESULTS: The 99 of 423 (23%) men who underwent biopsy diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1997 to 1998 had significantly different tPSA, percent fPSA and hK2 x tPSA/fPSA compared to the men with negative biopsies from 2 years earlier. 14501718 Human
hk2 cancer In addition, levels of hK2 and hK2 x tPSA/fPSA manifested a significantly greater 2-year increase in men with cancer compared to those with benign biopsies. 14501718 Human
hk2 cancer CONCLUSIONS: In men with tPSA levels 3.0 ng/ml or greater who were not diagnosed with cancer during a first round of screening, hK2 measurements enhanced specificity compared to tPSA testing at moderately high sensitivity, and manifested a greater 2-year 14501718 Human
hk2 localized prostate cancer In addition, different isoforms of free PSA exist Recent studies provide support for clinical application of these isoforms for early detection of prostate cancer.Clinical measurement of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) serves as a complementary marker 14504750 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Serum human glandular kallikrein (hK2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) improve the discrimination between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with total and %free PSA. 14567353 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia Serum human glandular kallikrein (hK2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) improve the discrimination between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with total and %free PSA. 14567353 Human
hk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: We measured concentrations of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and percent fPSA to evaluate their relationship to total prostate gland volume, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) volume, t 14634394 Human
hk2 cancer PURPOSE: We measured concentrations of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and percent fPSA to evaluate their relationship to total prostate gland volume, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) volume, t 14634394 Human
hk2 bph Correlations of hK2 and tPSA with total prostate and BPH volumes were weaker (r = 0.35 to 0.36 and 0.45 to 0.46, respectively). 14634394 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Further, we also evaluate recent literature regarding the use of PSA derivatives and other prostate cancer markers, such as proPSA, bPSA, and hk2 14704108 Human
hk2 prostate cancer These inhibitors might be useful to help elucidate the importance of hK2 in prostate cancer progression. 14728688 Human
hk2 prostate cancer OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of the precursor form (-7,5pro) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human kallikrein-2 (hK2) for detecting and grading prostate cancer, as better serum markers with improved specificity are needed in men with lower ranges 15049979 Human
hk2 prostate cancer PATIENTS AND METHODS: tPSA, free PSA (fPSA), the precursor (-7,5)proPSA and hK2 were measured in a subset of participants of the European Randomised Study of Screening of Prostate Cancer. 15049979 Human
hk2 cancer RESULTS: Levels of (-7,5)proPSA, hK2 and fPSA could be used to distinguish between BPH and cancer, but proPSA and hK2, alone or combined, did not improve the specificity of fPSA for discriminating BPH and cancer. 15049979 Human
hk2 bph RESULTS: Levels of (-7,5)proPSA, hK2 and fPSA could be used to distinguish between BPH and cancer, but proPSA and hK2, alone or combined, did not improve the specificity of fPSA for discriminating BPH and cancer. 15049979 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSION: The clinical effect of using (-7,5)proPSA or hK2 for detecting and grading prostate cancer remains limited. 15049979 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Study of PSA, PSMA and hK2 mRNA in peripheral blood of prostate cancer patients and its clinical implications. 15100735 Human
hk2 bone metastasis OBJECTIVE: To study the prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and human glandular kallikrein (hK2) mRNA in peripheral blood samples of prostate cancer (PC) patients with bone metastasis by nested reverse transcriptase 15100735 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSION: Nested RT-PCR based assay for PSA, PSMA or hK2 mRNA helps to detect prostate cancer cells in the circulation system, thus providing evidence for occult metastasis. 15100735 Human
hk2 metastasis CONCLUSION: Nested RT-PCR based assay for PSA, PSMA or hK2 mRNA helps to detect prostate cancer cells in the circulation system, thus providing evidence for occult metastasis. 15100735 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Early detection of prostate cancer in African-American men through use of multiple biomarkers: human kallikrein 2 (hK2), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and free PSA (fPSA). 15007379 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Recent studies have reported enhanced prostate cancer detection in Caucasians with serum human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) in combination with total- (tPSA) and free-prostate-specific antigen (fPSA). 15007379 Human
hk2 cancer These independent variables and the ratios of percent fPSA (%fPSA), hK2/tPSA, hK2/fPSA, and hK2*tPSA/fPSA were compared between cancer and non-cancer groups. 15007379 Human
hk2 prostate cancer BACKGROUND: Free and total human kallikrein 2 (hK2) might improve the discrimination between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 15247158 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia BACKGROUND: Free and total human kallikrein 2 (hK2) might improve the discrimination between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 15247158 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Free and total hK2 were measured in plasma from 103 patients with confirmed prostate cancer. 15247158 Human
hk2 tumors Comparison of positive RT-PCR rates of pT(2) and pT(3) tumors in corresponding peripheral blood for PSA, PSMA, and hK2 were 31.9 and 40.0%, 58.8 and 62.5%, and 26.9 and 27.5%, respectively. 15355910 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: Although the preoperative PSA RT-PCR in peripheral blood correlated with the grading of prostate cancer, no combination of RT-PCR results using "triple" markers (PSA, hK2, PSMA) in peripheral blood and/or lymph nodes yielded additio 15355910 Human
hk2 prostate cancer OBJECTIVE: Prostate cancer cells secrete the unique protease human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) that represents a target for proteolytic activation of cytotoxic prodrugs. 15542783 Human
hk2 cancer The GKAFRR-L12ADT was selectively cytotoxic in vitro to cancer cells in the presence of enzymatically active hK2. 15542783 Human
hk2 prostate cancer [Clinical significance of expression of PSA, hK2, PSMA in the peripheral blood of patients with prostate cancer] OBJECTIVE: To find sensitive and specific micro-metastic markers for prostate cancer. 15555338 Human
hk2 prostate cancer RESULTS: The expression rates of PSA, hK2 and PSMA mRNA were 52.9%, 43.1% and 64.7%, respectively in prostate cancer group, and 6.2%, 7.7% and 4.6%, respectively in control group (BPH patients and normal young people) with statistical significance (P < 0. 15555338 Human
hk2 prostate cancer BACKGROUND: We investigated the association of different subfractions of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), such as total PSA (tPSA), complexed PSA (cPSA), free PSA (fPSA), "single-chain Intact fPSA" (fPSA-I) 15378521 Human
hk2 cancer Only hK2, fPSA, and fPSA-N were significantly associated with CaVol in multivariable analysis, fPSA-I seemed to be cancer related. 15378521 Human
hk2 organ-confined prostate cancer PURPOSE: Previously human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) has been implicated to predict pathologically organ confined prostate cancer (PCa) in patients with stage T2 disease. 15711262 Human
hk2 cancer Using pretreatment PSA, clinical stage and biopsy Gleason grade we then developed a multivariate logistic regression base model to predict organ confined cancer and we compared predictions of the base model supplemented by the different hK2 measurements. 15711262 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: The current data confirm that hK2 alone or hK2*tPSA/fPSA measured by 2 immunoassays is significantly lower in men with pT2a/b vs pT3a or greater PCa compared to tPSA, fPSA or percent fPSA on univariate analysis of a validation set of clinical 15711262 Human
hk2 cancers However, the incorporation of preoperative hK2 into multiparameter predictive models for pT2 cancers did not increase predictive accuracy in this cohort of men. 15711262 Human
hk2 tumor Furthermore, PCI was detected in all CWR22 tumor samples (androgen dependent, 6 days post-castration, 12 days post-castration followed by 72 h of testosterone treatment, and recurrent CWR22 tumor), although expression of the mature forms of both prostate- 15878512 Human
hk2 prostate cancer MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum samples from 475 patients with prostate cancer (n = 347) or BPH (n = 128) within the PSA range of 1-20 ng/mL were analysed for tPSA, fPSA and hK2 (research assay, Toronto, Canada). 16104903 Human
hk2 bph MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum samples from 475 patients with prostate cancer (n = 347) or BPH (n = 128) within the PSA range of 1-20 ng/mL were analysed for tPSA, fPSA and hK2 (research assay, Toronto, Canada). 16104903 Human
klk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: The combination of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein (KLK2) promoters and/or enhancers was used to establish a new model to determine the feasibility of tissue specific expression for prostate cancer. 15540783 Human
klk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: Human glandular kallikrein, which is encoded by the human kallikrein-2 (KLK2) gene, is significantly associated with the occurrence of prostate cancer (PCa). 15643194 Human
the hk2 gene breast cancer Our data suggest that the expression of the hK2 gene in breast cancer cell lines is mainly under the control of androgens and progestins, similarly to PSA. 10832596 Human
the hk2 gene prostate carcinoma The authors report that the hK2 gene (hKLK2) was amplified in prostate carcinoma tissue, whereas the hPSA gene was not. 11753974 Human
the hk2 protein prostate carcinoma The hK2 protein therefore is expressed and secreted from prostate carcinoma cells. 8889697 Human
hk2 tumor [Immunohistochemical observation on keratin filaments of cultured tumor cells by ABC staining] Avidin-Biotin Peroxidase complex technique, ABV staining, was employed by using monoclonal anti-keratin antibody HK2 in this study. 1723963 Human
hk2 cancer It was found that HK2 was positive in the gland-luminal cells and cancer cells in the squamous metaplastic portion of the tumor; K12 was positive in the mucoid, fibroid, and cartilaginoid metaplastic tumor cells, while K27 was positive in less number of t 1726148 Human
hk2 fibroid It was found that HK2 was positive in the gland-luminal cells and cancer cells in the squamous metaplastic portion of the tumor; K12 was positive in the mucoid, fibroid, and cartilaginoid metaplastic tumor cells, while K27 was positive in less number of t 1726148 Human
hk2 tumor It was found that HK2 was positive in the gland-luminal cells and cancer cells in the squamous metaplastic portion of the tumor; K12 was positive in the mucoid, fibroid, and cartilaginoid metaplastic tumor cells, while K27 was positive in less number of t 1726148 Human
hk2 epithelial tumors The authors were of the opinion that keratin HK2 and K12 and CEA were ideal markers for lacrimal epithelial tumors. 1726148 Human
hk2 metastasis Their common features were: All clones metastasize to lymphatic system except a small percentage (1.88%) associated with lung metastasis; five clones as well as their parents all reacted with Keratin monoclonal antibody (HK2), which indicated the epitheli 2169979 Human
klk2 prostate cancer In this study, we now show that the comparative expression of hK4 protein in prostate cancer tissues, compared with benign glands, is greater than that of PSA and kallikrein 2 (KLK2/hK2), suggesting that hK4 may play an important functional role in prosta 16172196 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma The hK2 protein therefore is expressed and secreted from prostate carcinoma cells. 8889697 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of the role of PSA as a serologic indicator of prostate cancer, the demonstration that hK2 is also circulating in the blood of patients in different relative proportions to PSA suggests that it may be a significant novel 9123724 Human
hk2 pin METHODS: We evaluated 257 radical prostatectomy specimens removed at the Mayo Clinic with pathologic Stage 12 adenocarcinoma to compare the cytoplasmic expression of hK2, PSA, and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in benign tissue, high-grade prostatic int 9187691 Human
hk2 pin In marked contrast to hK2, PSA and PAP immunoreactivity was most intense in benign epithelium and stained to a lesser extent in PIN and carcinoma. 9187691 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Measurement of one or more of the hK2 forms identified here may have diagnostic or prognostic potential for prostate cancer. 9851894 Human
hk2 bph The median proportion of hK2 in relation to total PSA was 2.1%, 1.8%, and 1.4%, respectively, for PCa, BPH, and BPH cat patients. 9874461 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) is a trypsin-like serine protease that is expressed predominantly in the prostate epithelium and has 78% aa identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). hK2 has been recognized as a potential prostate cancer marker and 10024471 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma Human kallikrein 2 (hK2) is a serine protease expressed predominantly in the prostate which has 80% homology to prostate-specific antigen (PSA). hK2 is an active trypsin-like protease which has been shown by immuno-histochemical staining to be more highly 10209959 Human
hk2 metastasis Unlike PSA, hK2 activates pro-PSA , pro-hK2 and the zymogen form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), an extracellular protease correlated with prostate cancer and metastasis. 10209959 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Unlike PSA, hK2 activates pro-PSA , pro-hK2 and the zymogen form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), an extracellular protease correlated with prostate cancer and metastasis. 10209959 Human
hk2 cancer Our current results suggest that the increased hK2 expression in prostate cancer tissues could influence cancer biology not only by activation of uPA but also by inactivation of its primary inhibitor, PAI-1. 10209959 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Our current results suggest that the increased hK2 expression in prostate cancer tissues could influence cancer biology not only by activation of uPA but also by inactivation of its primary inhibitor, PAI-1. 10209959 Human
hk2 tumour We discuss also the molecular forms of PSA and the complexed PSA and new tumour markers which could be of interest in the future such as the HK2. 10523893 Human
hk2 prostate cancer There was a strong positive correlation between hK2 and free PSA in the whole patient population. hK2/free PSA ratio (area under the curve = 0.69) was stronger predictor of prostate cancer than the free/total PSA ratio (area under the curve = 0.64). 10545066 Human
hk2 cancer At 95% specificity, the hK2/free PSA ratio identified 30% of patients with total PSA between 2.5-10 microg/L who had cancer. 10545066 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that hK2 in combination with free and total PSA can enhance the biochemical detection of prostate cancer in patients with moderately increased total PSA concentrations. 10545066 Human
hk2 cancer More specifically, the hK2/free PSA ratio appears to be valuable in identifying a subset of patients with total PSA between 2.5 and 4.5 microg/L who have high probability of cancer and who should be considered for biopsy. 10545066 Human
hk2 benign prostate hyperplasia Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) is a serine protease expressed mainly by the prostate gland with 80% identity in primary structure to prostate specific antigen (PSA). hK2 has proven to be a useful marker of prostate cancer which can be used in combinat 10583401 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) is a serine protease expressed mainly by the prostate gland with 80% identity in primary structure to prostate specific antigen (PSA). hK2 has proven to be a useful marker of prostate cancer which can be used in combinat 10583401 Human
hk2 benign prostate hyperplasia (bph) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum from healthy controls, from men with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa), and advanced PCa were analyzed for hK2 (using an in-house-research assay with detection limit of 0.05 ng./mL a 10604382 Human
hk2 bph Percent hK2/PSA-F was higher in PCa than in BPH, a phenomena not yet understood. 10604382 Human
hk2 tumors RESULTS: Median hK2 and tPSA increased twofold from G1 to G2 tumors (hK2 0.07 versus 0.14 ng/mL, P <0.002; tPSA 6.1 versus 12.1 ng/mL, P <0.0002). 10736487 Human
hk2 tumors However, the hK2/fPSA ratio distinguished between G1 and G3 tumors and G2 and G3 tumors (0.085 [G1] and 0.11 [G2] versus 0.22 [G3], P <0.0002 and P <0.002, respectively). 10736487 Human
hk2 tumors CONCLUSIONS: hK2 significantly improved the identification of poorly differentiated (G3) tumors compared with PSA. 10736487 Human
hk2 tumor Thus, hK2 may be a useful tool for more accurate prediction of tumor grade or stage and allow better clinical decision-making. 10736487 Human
hk2 cancer In organ confined cancer mean hK2 was significantly lower than in non-organ confined cancer (0.09 ng./ml., range less than 0.03 to 0.23 versus 0.30, range 0.04 to 0.94, p <0.0001). 10751864 Human
hk2 cancer Sensitivity for detecting organ confined disease was 37% at 100% specificity (correct identification of all non-organ confined cancer) using hK2 measurements compared with a sensitivity of 14% for total PSA. 10751864 Human
hk2 cancer CONCLUSIONS: Compared with total and free PSA hK2 testing improved the preoperative evaluation of patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy due to the superior discrimination of organ from non-organ confined cancer. 10751864 Human
hk2 breast cancer Our data suggest that the expression of the hK2 gene in breast cancer cell lines is mainly under the control of androgens and progestins, similarly to PSA. 10832596 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia Molecular forms of PSA and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) have been used to discriminate between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer, as well as for the detection of prostate cancer within the gray zone of PSA. 10957772 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Molecular forms of PSA and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) have been used to discriminate between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer, as well as for the detection of prostate cancer within the gray zone of PSA. 10957772 Human
hk2 bph Altogether, several known genes, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2a (PAP2a), alpha-tropomyosin, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7), as well as an anony 11169518 Human
hk2 polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos) In this study, we have measured urinary PSA and urinary hK2 levels in 35 polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and compared them to those of 41 age-matched controls. 11297583 Human
hk2 prostate cancer (pc) We present a multiplexed and internally calibrated quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) assay to detect human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) transcripts in blood samples from healthy subjects and prostate canc 11486050 Human
hk2 cancer Human kallikrein 2 (hK2) is a secreted, trypsin-like protease that shares 80% amino acid sequence identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). hK2 has been shown to be a serum marker for prostate cancer and may also play a role in cancer progression and 11745444 Human
hk2 metastasis Human kallikrein 2 (hK2) is a secreted, trypsin-like protease that shares 80% amino acid sequence identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). hK2 has been shown to be a serum marker for prostate cancer and may also play a role in cancer progression and 11745444 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human kallikrein 2 (hK2) is a secreted, trypsin-like protease that shares 80% amino acid sequence identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). hK2 has been shown to be a serum marker for prostate cancer and may also play a role in cancer progression and 11745444 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Both hK2 and PI-6 were shed into the lumen of prostate cancer glands as granular material that appeared to be cellular necrotic debris. 11745444 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma The authors report that the hK2 gene (hKLK2) was amplified in prostate carcinoma tissue, whereas the hPSA gene was not. 11753974 Human
hk2 breast cancer However, highest levels were seen in prostatic tissue extracts and seminal plasma. hK11 in seminal plasma and prostatic extracts is present at approximately 300-fold lower levels than prostate-specific antigen and at approximately the same levels as hK2. 11782391 Human
hk2 prostate cancer (pc) We investigated the classification accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) mRNA copy numbers in blood for the differentiation of patients with prostate cancer (PC) and benign disease. 12142383 Human
hk2 cancer When stratified by ethnicity, hK2 (p = 0.003) and hK3 (p = 0.027) levels in blacks were lower than in whites. hK2 was lower in premenopausal black than in white subjects, regardless of cancer status. 12209605 Human
hk2 breast cancer Overall, hK2, hK3 and the ratio hK2/hK3 were lower in subjects with breast cancer than in normal subjects. hK3 was lower in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, regardless of ethnicity. hK2 and hK3 levels were higher in pre- than in postmenopausal whi 12209605 Human
hk2 breast cancer In conclusion, whereas hK2, hK3, hK2/hK3 and ethnicity are each significantly associated with breast cancer bivariately, after entering the strongest predictor, hK3, into a logistic regression model, no other variable accounted for additional variation, a 12209605 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph) The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in serum levels of hK2 and IGFs in a large group of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostatic carcinoma (CaP) and to examine the value of these variables, as well as their various 12518327 Human
hk2 prostate cancer RESULTS: hK2 and IGF-1 concentrations were increased in CaP patients, in comparison to BPH patients. hK2/free PSA and free/total PSA ratios (area under the curve, AUC = 0.70) were stronger predictors of prostate cancer than the IGF-1/total PSA ratio (AUC 12518327 Human
hk2 metastases In postoperative multivariable models, the RT-PCR/hK2 result was associated with prostate cancer progression (P =.001), development of distant metastases (P =.001), and prostate cancer-specific survival (P =.005). 12663708 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In postoperative multivariable models, the RT-PCR/hK2 result was associated with prostate cancer progression (P =.001), development of distant metastases (P =.001), and prostate cancer-specific survival (P =.005). 12663708 Human
hk2 metastases CONCLUSION: RT-PCR/hK2 can detect biologically and clinically significant occult prostate cancer metastases in histopathologically normal lymph nodes. 12663708 Human
hk2 advanced prostate cancer In patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, RT-PCR/hK2 is strongly associated with prostate cancer progression, failure following salvage radiation therapy, development of clinically evident metastases, and prostate cancer-specific mortality after 12663708 Human
hk2 metastases In patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, RT-PCR/hK2 is strongly associated with prostate cancer progression, failure following salvage radiation therapy, development of clinically evident metastases, and prostate cancer-specific mortality after 12663708 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, RT-PCR/hK2 is strongly associated with prostate cancer progression, failure following salvage radiation therapy, development of clinically evident metastases, and prostate cancer-specific mortality after 12663708 Human
hk2 prostate cancer This overview summarizes established and potentially new forms of PSA and hK2 for early detection and staging of prostate cancer. 14504750 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph) PURPOSE: We measured concentrations of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and percent fPSA to evaluate their relationship to total prostate gland volume, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) volume, t 14634394 Human
hk2 breast cancer Human kallikreins (hK) 2, 3, 6 and 10 are expressed in breast and prostate tissue. hK2 and hK3 (prostate-specific antigen, PSA) are used to screen for prostate cancer. hK6 and hK10 are downregulated in breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue. 14696124 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human kallikreins (hK) 2, 3, 6 and 10 are expressed in breast and prostate tissue. hK2 and hK3 (prostate-specific antigen, PSA) are used to screen for prostate cancer. hK6 and hK10 are downregulated in breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue. 14696124 Human
hk2 breast cancer We hypothesize that the expression of hK2, 3, 6 and 10 are related and important in detecting breast cancer. 14696124 Human
hk2 breast cancer The goals of this study are to determine the level of expression of kallikreins in NAF and serum, the association of hK2, 3, 6 and 10 in NAF, and the association of each of the kallikreins with breast cancer. 14696124 Human
hk2 cancer NAF levels were highest for hK6 and lowest for hK2, regardless of cancer and menopausal status. hK3 was detectable in 15/29 (52%) and hK2 in 0/29 serum samples collected from 6 women. hK2 and hK3 were concentrated in NAF vs. matched serum. 14696124 Human
hk2 breast cancer PSA levels were higher in normal pre- than postmenopausal subjects (but not women with breast cancer), whereas levels of hK2, 6 and 10 did not differ by menopausal status. hK2 and PSA were associated with both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer; hK6 an 14696124 Human
hk2 postmenopausal breast cancer PSA levels were higher in normal pre- than postmenopausal subjects (but not women with breast cancer), whereas levels of hK2, 6 and 10 did not differ by menopausal status. hK2 and PSA were associated with both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer; hK6 an 14696124 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In all, 49 of 137 men had prostate cancer. hK2 and its calculated ratios outperformed tPSA on receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, but %fPSA had statistically the highest area under the curve (AUC) at 0.801. 15007379 Human
hk2 prostate cancer %fPSA offered the best performance and highest specificity in prostate cancer detection in African-American males over the entire range of tPSA. hK2/fPSA may offer modest improvement in the tPSA range of 4.0-10 ng/ml. 15007379 Human
hk2 prostate cancer (pc) OBJECTIVE: To study the prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and human glandular kallikrein (hK2) mRNA in peripheral blood samples of prostate cancer (PC) patients with bone metastasis by nested reverse transcriptase 15100735 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In 103 patients with prostate cancer, the median hK2 concentration in plasma was 0.079 microg/L (range, 0.0015-16.2 microg/L). 15247158 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: The wide variation in the free-to-total hK2 ratio suggests that hK2 in blood plasma is not consistently in the free, noncomplexed form in patients with prostate cancer. 15247158 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The new assay is sufficiently sensitive to be used to study the diagnostic accuracies of free and total hK2 for prostate cancer. 15247158 Human
hk2 benign prostate hyperplasia (bph) METHODS: Using nested reverse transcription-PCR, we examined the expression of PSA, hK2 and PSMA mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 51 patients with prostate cancer, 33 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 32 normal young people. 15555338 Human
hk2 prostate cancer METHODS: Using nested reverse transcription-PCR, we examined the expression of PSA, hK2 and PSMA mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 51 patients with prostate cancer, 33 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 32 normal young people. 15555338 Human
hk2 bph RESULTS: The expression rates of PSA, hK2 and PSMA mRNA were 52.9%, 43.1% and 64.7%, respectively in prostate cancer group, and 6.2%, 7.7% and 4.6%, respectively in control group (BPH patients and normal young people) with statistical significance (P < 0. 15555338 Human
hk2 cancer Although the expression rate of PSA and hK2 mRNA increased with cancer progression, there was no statistical significance among patients in different stages. 15555338 Human
hk2 prostate cancer PSA (hK3) is one of the human kallikreins, and is the most useful tumor marker for prostate cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring. hK2, another prostate-specific kallikrein, has also been proposed as a complementary prostate cancer biomark 15911097 Human
hk2 tumor PSA (hK3) is one of the human kallikreins, and is the most useful tumor marker for prostate cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring. hK2, another prostate-specific kallikrein, has also been proposed as a complementary prostate cancer biomark 15911097 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph) OBJECTIVE: To assess, using artificial neural networks (ANNs), human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and percentage free/total PSA (f/tPSA), for discriminating between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 16104903 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In this study, we now show that the comparative expression of hK4 protein in prostate cancer tissues, compared with benign glands, is greater than that of PSA and kallikrein 2 (KLK2/hK2), suggesting that hK4 may play an important functional role in prosta 16172196 Human
hk2 prostate cancer To examine the roles that hK4, as well as PSA and hK2, play in processes associated with progression, these kallikreins were separately transfected into the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line, and the consequence of their stable transfection was investigated. 16172196 Human
hk2 prostate cancers BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of total and free forms of serum human kallikrein 2 (hK2) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with prostate cancers of unfavorable prognosis. 17185368 Human
hk2 localized prostate cancer METHODS: We retrospectively measured total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), and total hK2 (thK2) in preoperative serum samples from 867 men [and assessed free hK2 (fhK2) measured in 577 of these men] treated with radical prostatectomy for clinically localized 17185368 Human
klk-2 cap We investigated the individual and combined risk of KLK-2, PSA and AR gene polymorphism in histologically confirmed CaP patients and healthy controls from north India. 17257635 Human
klk-2 cap A significant association for CaP risk was observed with short AR-CAG repeats (OR=3.36, p<0.001) and CC genotype of KLK-2 (OR=2.78, p=0.031), however, no association was found with PSA and AR-GGN repeat polymorphism. 17257635 Human
hk2 gastric carcinomas CONCLUSION: HK2 was overexpressed in 16.7% of gastric carcinomas, and reciprocal expression pattern with Bcl-2. 17352240 Human
hk2 lymph node metastases OBJECTIVES: To describe the expression of a potential new tumor marker, human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), in primary adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases that may be useful as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis and monito 10223487 Human
hk2 primary adenocarcinoma OBJECTIVES: To describe the expression of a potential new tumor marker, human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), in primary adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases that may be useful as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis and monito 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph node metastases METHODS: We evaluated 151 radical prostatectomy specimens removed at Mayo Clinic with node-positive adenocarcinoma to compare cytoplasmic expression of hK2, pro-hK2, and PSA in benign tissue, prostate adenocarcinoma, and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph node metastases The intensity and extent of hK2 expression was greater in lymph node metastases than in primary cancer; furthermore, the expression in primary cancer was greater than in benign epithelium. 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph node metastases In marked contrast to mature hK2, monoclonal PSA immunoreactivity was expressed to a higher extent in primary cancer than in lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph node metastases CONCLUSIONS: hK2 was expressed in every cancer, and the expression incrementally increased from benign epithelium to primary cancer and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 lymph node metastases Tissue expression of hK2 appears to be regulated independently of PSA in benign epithelium, adenocarcinoma, and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 advanced metastatic cancer This regulation may be impaired in CAP and advanced metastatic cancer resulting in lack of control of the hK2 activity and a need for other means of control. 10411640 Human
hk2 nonmetastatic prostate cancer PURPOSE: To compare the detection of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) mRNA expression in archival lymph nodes with disease progression, the development of prostate cancer metastases, and mortality in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for locally 12663708 Human
hk2 occult prostate cancer CONCLUSION: RT-PCR/hK2 can detect biologically and clinically significant occult prostate cancer metastases in histopathologically normal lymph nodes. 12663708 Human
hk2 total cancer In PCa hK2 more closely correlates with total cancer volume and high grade PCa volume compared with tPSA or fPSA. 14634394 Human
hk2 organ confined prostate cancer PURPOSE: Previously human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) has been implicated to predict pathologically organ confined prostate cancer (PCa) in patients with stage T2 disease. 15711262 Human
hk2 stage t1c prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: The current data confirm that hK2 alone or hK2*tPSA/fPSA measured by 2 immunoassays is significantly lower in men with pT2a/b vs pT3a or greater PCa compared to tPSA, fPSA or percent fPSA on univariate analysis of a validation set of clinical 15711262 Human
klk2 prostate cancer Four genes (TNF308, GSTT1, KLK2, and HOGG1-326) were significantly associated with prostate cancer. 16322300 Human
klk2 prostate cancer We have demonstrated that expression of PSA or KLK4, but not KLK2, in PC-3 prostate cancer cells changed the cellular morphology from epithelial to spindle-shaped, markedly reduced E-cadherin expression, increased vimentin expression and increased cellula 16800731 Human
hk2 localized prostate cancer We retrospectively measured total PSA (tPSA), fPSA and hK2 in preoperative serum samples from 461 men with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy between 1999 and 2001. 16152616 Human
hk2 glioblastomas A set of RNAs (including POFUT2, PTDSR, PLOD2, ATF5, and HK2) that were differentially expressed in 3 initially studied, microdissected glioblastomas also provided prognostic information in an independent set of 28 glioblastomas that did not all have peri 16254489 Human
hk2 metastatic prostate cancer BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer cells secrete unique proteases such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) that represent targets for the activation of prodrugs as systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. 16302271 Human
hk2 prostate cancer BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer cells secrete unique proteases such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) that represent targets for the activation of prodrugs as systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. 16302271 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The peptide was coupled to an analog of the potent cytotoxin thapsigargin, L12ADT, to generate an hK2-activated prodrug that was efficiently hydrolyzed by purified hK2, stable to hydrolysis in human and mouse plasma in vitro and selectively toxic to hK2 p 16302271 Human
hk2 cancer CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the major PSA isoforms and hK2, cPSA alone appears to offer superior diagnostic discrimination for cancer detection in a predominantly black population. 16406882 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In an effort to assess the rapid digestion platform in a context of putative clinical applications, two prostate cancer biomarkers, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), were digested at levels of 100 fmol (PSA), 20 fmol 16523454 Human
hk2 metastasis Because hK2 activates several factors participating in proteolytic cascades that may mediate metastasis of prostate cancer, modulation of the activity of hK2 is a potential way of preventing tumor growth and metastasis. 16527822 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Because hK2 activates several factors participating in proteolytic cascades that may mediate metastasis of prostate cancer, modulation of the activity of hK2 is a potential way of preventing tumor growth and metastasis. 16527822 Human
hk2 tumor Because hK2 activates several factors participating in proteolytic cascades that may mediate metastasis of prostate cancer, modulation of the activity of hK2 is a potential way of preventing tumor growth and metastasis. 16527822 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Furthermore, specific ligands for hK2 are potentially useful for targeting and imaging of prostate cancer and for assay development. 16527822 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Serum human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) for distinguishing stage and grade of prostate cancer. 16643616 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Background: Human glandular kallikrein (hK2) has been shown to add important information regarding the early detection and staging of prostate cancer. 16643616 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Methods: Prostate-specific antigen, free PSA and hK2 were measured on 222 untreated prostate cancer patients who had received radical prostatectomy at the Charité Hospital, Berlin, Germany. 16643616 Human
hk2 tumors Between grade 2 and grade 3 tumors, the hK2 alone (P=0.27), the %fPSA (P=0.13), the ratios hK2/fPSA (P=0.94) and hK2xtPSA/fPSA (P=0.12) did not separate, whereas PSA (P=0.039) showed a difference. 16643616 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Together with %fPSA, hK2 may only help to distinguish preoperatively between pT2 and pT3 prostate cancer but cannot add further information. 16643616 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Two tissue kallikreins, namely hK2 and hK3 (prostate-specific antigen, PSA), are currently used as serological biomarkers of prostate cancer. 16800734 Human
hk2 cancer CONCLUSIONS: Although hK2 could not predict the cancer stage or grade better than PSA, changes in the hK2 and PSA concentrations occurred at different points in cancer progression. hK2 may have a role in the prognosis of prostate cancer, but additional st 16844459 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: Although hK2 could not predict the cancer stage or grade better than PSA, changes in the hK2 and PSA concentrations occurred at different points in cancer progression. hK2 may have a role in the prognosis of prostate cancer, but additional st 16844459 Human
hk2 adenocarcinoma Human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) expression in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma: a novel prostate cancer marker. 9187691 Human
hk2 adenocarcinoma METHODS: We evaluated 257 radical prostatectomy specimens removed at the Mayo Clinic with pathologic Stage 12 adenocarcinoma to compare the cytoplasmic expression of hK2, PSA, and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in benign tissue, high-grade prostatic int 9187691 Human
hk2 adenocarcinoma CONCLUSIONS: hK2 was expressed in every cancer, and the expression incrementally increased from benign epithelium to high-grade PIN and adenocarcinoma. 9187691 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In addition, different isoforms of free PSA exist Recent studies provide support for clinical application of these isoforms for early detection of prostate cancer.Clinical measurement of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) serves as a complementary marker 14504750 Human
klk2 rcc Since immunoscreening of the RCC library for expressed PSA-like proteins was unsuccessful, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the RCC cDNA library was performed using universal KLK primers, directed to the common regions in exon 3 and exon 5 of K 10614994 Human
klk2 carcinogenesis Third, MSA inhibition of five androgen receptor-regulated genes implicated in prostate carcinogenesis (PSA, KLK2, ABCC4, DHCR24, and GUCY1A3) is significantly attenuated by androgen receptor overexpression. 16020662 Human
klk2 prostate cancer The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer for patients with the AA genotype of the TNF308 gene was 1.92 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.0-1.5, P = 0.05], compared with those with the GG genotype, and for patients with the TT genotype of the K 16322300 Human
klk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: Of the 13 polymorphisms, two were found to be positively associated with prostate cancer (TNF308 and KLK2) and two were negatively associated with prostate cancer (GSTT1 and HOGG1-326). 16322300 Human
klk2 prostate cancer Variants of the hK2 protein gene (KLK2) are associated with serum hK2 levels and predict the presence of prostate cancer at biopsy. 17085659 Human
klk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: Increased levels of serum human kallikrein-2 (hK2) and an hK2 gene (KLK2) variant are positively associated for prostate cancer, but the relationships between them remain unclear. 17085659 Human
klk2 prostate cancer We examined five variants of the KLK2 gene to further define its relevance to prostate cancer susceptibility and hK2 levels. 17085659 Human
klk2 prostate cancer EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We genotyped 645 men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer (cases) and 606 males with biopsies negative for prostate cancer (controls) for five additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across the KLK2 gene and also tested for ser 17085659 Human
klk2 aggressive prostate cancer These SNPs were identified from sequencing the KLK2 gene among 20 patients with aggressive prostate cancer. 17085659 Human
klk2 prostate cancer RESULTS: Among the SNPs studied, the A allele of the KLK2-SNP1 (G>A, rs2664155) and the T allele of the KLK2-SNP5 (C>T, rs198977) polymorphisms showed positive associations with prostate cancer, adjusted ORs for KLK2-SNP1 AG and AA genotypes being 1.4 [95 17085659 Human
klk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a role for the KLK2 gene in prostate cancer susceptibility and imply that this role may be realized at least in part by the induction of increases in hK2 production. 17085659 Human
hk2 adenocarcinoma METHODS: We evaluated 151 radical prostatectomy specimens removed at Mayo Clinic with node-positive adenocarcinoma to compare cytoplasmic expression of hK2, pro-hK2, and PSA in benign tissue, prostate adenocarcinoma, and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 adenocarcinoma Tissue expression of hK2 appears to be regulated independently of PSA in benign epithelium, adenocarcinoma, and lymph node metastases. 10223487 Human
hk2 cancer Also, the cancer-detecting sensitivity was significantly improved (P <0.05) using hK2 x tPSA/fPSA compared with tPSA and percent fPSA at specificity levels of 75% to 90%. 10792083 Human
hk2 prostate cancer RT-PCR-hK2 was performed on preoperative peripheral blood specimens from 228 consecutive radical prostatectomy patients as well as 7 metastatic prostate cancer patients and 14 healthy men without prostate cancer. 11156423 Human
hk2 metastatic prostate cancer RT-PCR-hK2 was performed on preoperative peripheral blood specimens from 228 consecutive radical prostatectomy patients as well as 7 metastatic prostate cancer patients and 14 healthy men without prostate cancer. 11156423 Human
hk2 necrosis These results indicate that the hK2-PI-6 complex may be a naturally occurring marker of tissue damage and necrosis associated with neoplasia. 11745444 Human
hk2 neoplasia These results indicate that the hK2-PI-6 complex may be a naturally occurring marker of tissue damage and necrosis associated with neoplasia. 11745444 Human
hk2 cap The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in serum levels of hK2 and IGFs in a large group of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostatic carcinoma (CaP) and to examine the value of these variables, as well as their various 12518327 Human
hk2 cap RESULTS: hK2 and IGF-1 concentrations were increased in CaP patients, in comparison to BPH patients. hK2/free PSA and free/total PSA ratios (area under the curve, AUC = 0.70) were stronger predictors of prostate cancer than the IGF-1/total PSA ratio (AUC 12518327 Human
hk2 cap Multivariate logistic regression models confirmed the observed relationships and identified IGF-1/free PSA and hK2/free PSA as independent predictors of CaP. 12518327 Human
hk2 thyroid cancer RESULTS: hK2-transcripts were significantly more often detected in patients with thyroid cancer (20/72=28%) than in the control group (2/32=6%, P = 0.03, chi-square analysis). 12618898 Human
hk2 pt3n0 prostate cancer PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated total RNA extracted from fixed, paraffin-embedded, histopathologically normal pelvic lymph nodes, removed at radical prostatectomy, from 199 pT3N0 prostate cancer patients (150 extraprostatic extension only; 49 seminal v 12663708 Human
hk2 metastases In standard postoperative multivariable models, IHC-PSA/IHC-Cytokeratin or IHC-hK2 was associated with prostate cancer progression, development of distant metastases, and prostate cancer-specific survival. 12907647 Human
hk2 prostate cancer In standard postoperative multivariable models, IHC-PSA/IHC-Cytokeratin or IHC-hK2 was associated with prostate cancer progression, development of distant metastases, and prostate cancer-specific survival. 12907647 Human
hk2 metastases Although IHC-PSA/IHC-Cytokeratin and IHC-hK2 were more specific for identifying patients who would suffer biochemical progression and develop metastases and who would ultimately die of prostate cancer, RT-PCR-hK2 was more sensitive and accurate. 12907647 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Although IHC-PSA/IHC-Cytokeratin and IHC-hK2 were more specific for identifying patients who would suffer biochemical progression and develop metastases and who would ultimately die of prostate cancer, RT-PCR-hK2 was more sensitive and accurate. 12907647 Human
hk2 cancer Histopathologically, cancer-free lymph node samples were positive in RT-PCR for PSA and hK2 in 70 (49.6%) of 141 and 89 (63.2%) of 141 of cases. 15355910 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSION: The hK2-activated thapsigargin prodrug represents potential novel targeted therapy for prostate cancer. 15542783 Human
hk2 rcc METHODS: Two human RCC cell lines (ACHN and SN12K1) and renal tubular epithelial cells (HK2) were treated with 5-fluorouracil (0.2-20 microg/ml) or cisplatin (1-100 microM). 15711100 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Only in lower tPSA ranges do hK2-based ANNs show an advantage for further improving prostate cancer detection. 16104903 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Variants of the hK2 protein gene (KLK2) are associated with serum hK2 levels and predict the presence of prostate cancer at biopsy. 17085659 Human
hk2 prostate cancer PURPOSE: Increased levels of serum human kallikrein-2 (hK2) and an hK2 gene (KLK2) variant are positively associated for prostate cancer, but the relationships between them remain unclear. 17085659 Human
hk2 prostate cancer We examined five variants of the KLK2 gene to further define its relevance to prostate cancer susceptibility and hK2 levels. 17085659 Human
hk2 prostate cancer EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We genotyped 645 men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer (cases) and 606 males with biopsies negative for prostate cancer (controls) for five additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across the KLK2 gene and also tested for ser 17085659 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a role for the KLK2 gene in prostate cancer susceptibility and imply that this role may be realized at least in part by the induction of increases in hK2 production. 17085659 Human
klk2 prostatic tumors Human glandular kallikrein (KLK2) is a highly prostate-specific serine protease, which is mainly excreted into the seminal fluid, but part of which is also secreted into circulation from prostatic tumors. 17436344 Human
klk2 metastasis Since the expression level of KLK2 is elevated in aggressive tumors and it has been suggested to mediate the metastasis of prostate cancer, inhibition of the proteolytic activity of KLK2 is of potential therapeutic value. 17436344 Human
klk2 tumors Since the expression level of KLK2 is elevated in aggressive tumors and it has been suggested to mediate the metastasis of prostate cancer, inhibition of the proteolytic activity of KLK2 is of potential therapeutic value. 17436344 Human
klk2 prostate cancer Since the expression level of KLK2 is elevated in aggressive tumors and it has been suggested to mediate the metastasis of prostate cancer, inhibition of the proteolytic activity of KLK2 is of potential therapeutic value. 17436344 Human
hk2 tumors Using multivariate regression analysis, the fPSA/(tPSA x hK2) ratio differentiated G2 and G3 tumors (P <0.01). 10736487 Human
hk2 prostate cancer OBJECTIVE: To assess, using artificial neural networks (ANNs), human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and percentage free/total PSA (f/tPSA), for discriminating between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 16104903 Human
hk2 bph RESULTS: Whereas the median concentration of hK2 was not significantly different between patients with BPH or prostate cancer in any of the tPSA ranges, the f/tPSA, hK2/fPSA and hK2/(f/tPSA), and the hK2-based ANN outputs were always significantly differe 16104903 Human
hk2 prostate cancer RESULTS: Whereas the median concentration of hK2 was not significantly different between patients with BPH or prostate cancer in any of the tPSA ranges, the f/tPSA, hK2/fPSA and hK2/(f/tPSA), and the hK2-based ANN outputs were always significantly differe 16104903 Human
hk2 tumors Preliminary analysis pointed out that hK2 may discriminate between pT2 and pT3 tumors, and that hK2 may predict Gleason grade 4/5 cancer volume, better than prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or percent free PSA (%fPSA). 16643616 Human
hk2 cancer Preliminary analysis pointed out that hK2 may discriminate between pT2 and pT3 tumors, and that hK2 may predict Gleason grade 4/5 cancer volume, better than prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or percent free PSA (%fPSA). 16643616 Human
hk2 cancer We tested the hypothesis that tPSA levels are more strongly predictive of cancer in younger when compared to older men, whereas %fPSA and hK2 are more strongly predictive in men tested closer to diagnosis. 17657743 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The study included 13,676 men age >/= 44 in Sweden, where PSA screening was uncommon during the study period. fPSA, tPSA and hK2 were measured in archived plasma collected during 1974-1986 in 501 men subsequently diagnosed with prostate cancer up to 1999 17657743 Human
klk2 prostate cancer Two of the classical kallikrein genes KLK3 and KLK2 on 19q13.4 are plausible candidates in prostate cancer susceptibility. 17593395 Human
klk2 cancer Human paralogs are KLK2 and KLK3: the latter encoding the cancer biomarker prostate-specific antigen. 18344018 Human
klk2 prostate cancer In this study, we report two novel ETV4 fusion genes in prostate cancer: KLK2-ETV4 and CANT1-ETV4. 18451133 Human
klk2 prostate cancer Approximately, 12% (329) of the proteins identified were classified as extracellular and 18% (504) as membrane-bound among which were known prostate cancer biomarkers such as PSA and KLK2. 18578523 Human
klk2 tumor The prostate produces several proteases, the most abundant ones being kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3, PSA) and KLK2 (hK2), which are potential targets for tumor imaging and treatment. 18627344 Human
klk2 tumors KLK3 expression is lower in malignant than in normal prostatic epithelium and it is further reduced in poorly differentiated tumors, in which the expression of KLK2 is increased. 18627344 Human
klk2 tumor KLK3 has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis, whereas KLK2 may mediate tumor growth and invasion by participating in proteolytic cascades. 18627344 Human
klk2 prostate cancer Thus, it may be possible to control prostate cancer growth by modulating the proteolytic activity of KLK3 and KLK2. 18627344 Human
klk2 prostate cancer In this review we summarize the possible roles of KLK3 and KLK2 in prostate cancer and then concentrate on the development of peptides that modulate the activity of these proteases. 18627344 Human
hk2 prostate cancer hK2 and free PSA, a prognostic combination in predicting minimal prostate cancer in screen-detected men within the PSA range 4-10 ng/ml. 17499425 Human
hk2 tumour The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the role of tumour markers total PSA, free PSA, and hK2, and their combinations in predicting minimal prostate cancer. 17499425 Human
hk2 prostate cancer The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the role of tumour markers total PSA, free PSA, and hK2, and their combinations in predicting minimal prostate cancer. 17499425 Human
hk2 mean tumour Mean tumour volume was 1.2 ml (range: 0.04-13.5); hK2, the algorithms hK2/fPSA, and hK2/%fPSA have significant correlations with tumour volume. 17499425 Human
hk2 tumour Mean tumour volume was 1.2 ml (range: 0.04-13.5); hK2, the algorithms hK2/fPSA, and hK2/%fPSA have significant correlations with tumour volume. 17499425 Human
hk2 prostate cancer CONCLUSIONS: hK2 and percent free PSA have added prognostic value for the detection of minimal prostate cancer in screen-detected cases within PSA range 4-10 ng/ml. 17499425 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Role of hK2 in predicting clinically insignificant prostate cancer. 17822837 Human
hk2 mesothelioma The expression of hK1, hKB1, KRP/hK2, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, and kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors was assessed in archived selected normal tissue and mesothelioma tumour sections by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence labelling. hK1, hKB1 and kinin B(1) and B 17976017 Human
hk2 tumour The expression of hK1, hKB1, KRP/hK2, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, and kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors was assessed in archived selected normal tissue and mesothelioma tumour sections by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence labelling. hK1, hKB1 and kinin B(1) and B 17976017 Human
hk2 biphasic mesothelioma The expression of hK1, hKB1, KRP/hK2, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, and kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors was assessed in archived selected normal tissue and mesothelioma tumour sections by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence labelling. hK1, hKB1 and kinin B(1) and B 17976017 Human
hk2 mesothelioma KRP/hK2, 6, 8 and 9 were also expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of mesothelioma cells, whereas KRP/hK5 and hK7 showed predominantly cytoplasmic localisation. 17976017 Human
hk2 tumor A major characteristic of prostate cancer is the elevation of serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (hK3) and hK2, which are tumor markers that correlate with advancing stages of disease. 18567807 Human
hk2 prostate cancer A major characteristic of prostate cancer is the elevation of serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (hK3) and hK2, which are tumor markers that correlate with advancing stages of disease. 18567807 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Here, we show that recombinant hK2 and hK4 activate ERK1/2 signaling of DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, which express both PAR1 and PAR2. 18567807 Human
hk2 prostate cancer These data indicate that prostatic kallikreins (hK2 and hK4) directly stimulate prostate cancer cell proliferation through PAR1 and/or PAR2 and may be potentially important targets for future drug therapy for prostate cancer. 18567807 Human
hk2 tumor The prostate produces several proteases, the most abundant ones being kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3, PSA) and KLK2 (hK2), which are potential targets for tumor imaging and treatment. 18627344 Human
hk2 breast cancer RESULTS: In this data set, NAF and serum levels of PSA (nPSA and sPSA), and NAF levels hK2, bFGF and uPA were each associated with pre- and/or postmenopausal breast cancer. sPSA was inversely associated with BMI in both pre- (r=-.56, p=.001) and postmenop 18639389 Human
hk2 postmenopausal breast cancer RESULTS: In this data set, NAF and serum levels of PSA (nPSA and sPSA), and NAF levels hK2, bFGF and uPA were each associated with pre- and/or postmenopausal breast cancer. sPSA was inversely associated with BMI in both pre- (r=-.56, p=.001) and postmenop 18639389 Human
hk2 breast cancer In women without breast cancer, NAF bFGF (p=.07, premenopausal subjects) and NAF hK2 (p=.09, postmenopausal subjects) were borderline associated with BMI. 18639389 Human
hk2 prostate cancer [PSA and hK2 in the diagnosis of prostate cancer] Serum markers for prostate carcinoma are widely applied for the purpose of early detection of cancer and the differentiation between benign and malignant disease, for the pre-treatment staging of detected 18655340 Human
hk2 prostate carcinoma [PSA and hK2 in the diagnosis of prostate cancer] Serum markers for prostate carcinoma are widely applied for the purpose of early detection of cancer and the differentiation between benign and malignant disease, for the pre-treatment staging of detected 18655340 Human
hk2 prostatic cancers [PSA and hK2 in the diagnosis of prostate cancer] Serum markers for prostate carcinoma are widely applied for the purpose of early detection of cancer and the differentiation between benign and malignant disease, for the pre-treatment staging of detected 18655340 Human
hk2 cancer [PSA and hK2 in the diagnosis of prostate cancer] Serum markers for prostate carcinoma are widely applied for the purpose of early detection of cancer and the differentiation between benign and malignant disease, for the pre-treatment staging of detected 18655340 Human
hk2 prostate cancer Human kallikrein 2 (hK2), a serine protease closely related to PSA that also is expressed predominantly in the prostate, is a new complementary marker to PSA for early detection of prostate cancer. 18655340 Human
hk2 cancer Target genes that are common to both HIF and MYC, such as PDK1, LDHA, HK2, and TFRC, are therefore attractive therapeutic targets, because their coordinate induction by HIF and MYC widens the therapeutic window between cancer and normal tissues. 18811052 Human
hk2 benign prostate hyperplasia MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum from healthy controls, from men with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa), and advanced PCa were analyzed for hK2 (using an in-house-research assay with detection limit of 0.05 ng./mL a 10604382 Human
hk2 prostate cancer We present a multiplexed and internally calibrated quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) assay to detect human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) transcripts in blood samples from healthy subjects and prostate canc 11486050 Human
hk2 prostate cancer We investigated the classification accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2) mRNA copy numbers in blood for the differentiation of patients with prostate cancer (PC) and benign disease. 12142383 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia PURPOSE: We measured concentrations of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and percent fPSA to evaluate their relationship to total prostate gland volume, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) volume, t 14634394 Human
hk2 prostate cancer OBJECTIVE: To study the prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and human glandular kallikrein (hK2) mRNA in peripheral blood samples of prostate cancer (PC) patients with bone metastasis by nested reverse transcriptase 15100735 Human
hk2 benign prostate hyperplasia METHODS: Using nested reverse transcription-PCR, we examined the expression of PSA, hK2 and PSMA mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 51 patients with prostate cancer, 33 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 32 normal young people. 15555338 Human
hk2 benign prostatic hyperplasia OBJECTIVE: To assess, using artificial neural networks (ANNs), human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and percentage free/total PSA (f/tPSA), for discriminating between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 16104903 Human

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