IGDB.NSCLC Gene View
 
Gene Information        (help)
Gene RALA Ensembl ENSG00000006451 Chromosome 7 Start 39629687 End 39714240
Description Ras-related protein Ral-A Precursor [Source:UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot;Acc:P11233]
GENE RESOURCES :NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES :PROTEIN RESOURCES :CLINICAL RESOURCES :REFERENCES :
     HGNC : 9839
     Entrez Gene : 5898
     UCSC : uc003thd.2
     GeneCards : 9839
     RefSeq : NM_005402
     CCDS : CCDS5460.1
     Uniprot : P11233
     Interpro : P11233
     OMIM : 179550
     GeneTests : RALA
     CGAP : RALA
     PMID : 3292391

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Somatic Mutaions        (help)
Lung cancer Adenocarcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Unique Mutated Samples % Mutated Total Unique
Samples
Unique Mutated
Samples
% Mutated Total Unique
Samples
Unique Mutated
Samples
% Mutated Total Unique
Samples
1 0.50 200 1 0.53 189 0 0.00 0
Sample datas
Sample Name Histology Subtype DNA Mutation Protein Mutation Mutation Description Zygosity Genomic Co-ordinates NCBI36 Pubmed
16660 AD c.175G>T p.G59W Substitution - Missense Heterozygous 7:39696566-3969656618948947

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Microarray Gene Expression Fold Change Result        (help)
( red: up-regulation / green : down-regulation when p value < 0.01)
( gray background : these probesets might have mapping problems. ref 1, ref 2)
Chip Type Probeset Adenocarcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Fold Change p value q value Fold Change p value q value
 HG_U95  1876_at  0.20  1.57e-1  2.40e-1  0.57  7.92e-4  2.52e-3
 HG_U95  1877_g_at  0.24  4.09e-2  7.81e-2  0.76  2.47e-6  1.42e-5
 HG_U95  39253_s_at  0.36  2.55e-3  7.17e-3  0.78  4.72e-6  2.57e-5
 HG_U133A  214435_x_at  0.16  3.36e-2  4.82e-2  -1.66  1.14e-43  2.34e-43
 HG_U133_Plus2  214435_x_at  0.34  1.08e-4  3.41e-4  0.66  1.96e-11  1.02e-10
 HG_U133_Plus2  224880_at  -0.43  2.97e-10  2.23e-9  -0.56  7.89e-13  4.85e-12
 Stanford  18906  0.10  7.29e-1  8.46e-1  0.22  5.25e-1  7.35e-1
 Agilent_HS_21.6K  18682  -0.17  2.45e-2  8.81e-2  -0.23  2.03e-4  1.45e-3

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Adjuvant Cisplatin/vinorelbine Treatment vs Observation Result        (help) (Pubmed)
( red: up-regulation / green : down-regulation when p value < 0.01)
( gray background color : the mapping problems of probeset. ref_1, ref_2)
Chip Type Probeset Adenocarcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Fold Change p value q value Fold Change p value q value
 HG_U133A  214435_x_at  -0.55  1.04e-1  7.77e-1  0.13  4.93e-1  1.00e+0

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Microarray Sample Data        (help)
( The log2 value of tumor samples )
(Average : Average log2 value from Normal Samples.)
        HG_U95 - 1876_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U95 - 1877_g_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U95 - 39253_s_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133A - 214435_x_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133_Plus2 - 214435_x_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        HG_U133_Plus2 - 224880_at    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        Stanford - 18906    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

        Agilent_HS_21.6K - 18682    (back)       Save as a PNG file. Save as a PDF file. Save as a PS file.
Gene expression figure

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Cancer Gene Index        (help)

If 0 entry was found, please remove the search key "lung cancer".
Keyword DiseaseData Statement PubMed Organism
rala prostate cancer RalA regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) synthesis in prostate cancer cells during androgen ablation. 16964283 Human
rala human prostate carcinoma In our present study, we show that androgen deprivation of human prostate carcinoma cells activates the small GTPase, RalA, a molecule important for human oncogenesis. 16964283 Human
rala prostate cancer We also show that elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in prostate cancer cells under androgen-ablated conditions is the major inducer of RalA activation and VEGF-C synthesis. 16964283 Human
rala human tumor Here we show that EGF stimulates motility in human tumor cell lines, which harbor activating Ha-RasV12 via a novel signal transduction pathway mediated by the small GTP-binding proteins RalA and RhoA but independent of Rac1 and Cdc42. 11861368 Human
ral tumor metastasis This is the first demonstration of an essential role for Ral in EGF-mediated cell motility and its potential contribution to tumor metastasis in human cancer. 11861368 Human
ral cancer This is the first demonstration of an essential role for Ral in EGF-mediated cell motility and its potential contribution to tumor metastasis in human cancer. 11861368 Human
ral breast cancer Involvement of R-Ras and Ral GTPases in estrogen-independent proliferation of breast cancer cells. 12386818 Human
ral breast cancer A potential role for Ras-related GTPases in this process was suggested by the finding that BCAR3/AND-34, a protein isolated on the basis of its ability to convert MCF-7 and ZR-75 breast cancer cell lines to estrogen independence and tamoxifen resistance, 12386818 Human
ral breast cancer These findings suggest that Ral activity takes on a significant role in controlling cell proliferation of breast cancer cells when progression to estrogen-independence is associated with over-expression of EGF receptor family members. 12386818 Human
ral fibrosarcoma Ral promotes anchorage-independent growth of a human fibrosarcoma, HT1080. 11162603 Human
ral human tumor We show that inhibition of Ral signaling blocks DNA synthesis in human tumor cell lines containing activating mutations in TC21, demonstrating for the first time that this pathway is required for the proliferation of human tumor cells. 11340168 Human
rala tumor The data presented here show a novel regulatory role for RalA, which is required for tumor formation in transformed NIH3T3 cells, in mediating the signal transduction pathway activated by v-Src, v-Ras, and v-Raf, that leads to FN downregulation and CD44 o 11350063 Mouse
ral myeloid leukemia JAK/STAT3-dependent activation of the RalGDS/Ral pathway in M1 mouse myeloid leukemia cells. 11432872 Mouse
ral breast cancer This work identifies a new potential function for p130(Cas) and a new regulatory pathway involved in the control of Ral, Rap, and R-Ras GTPases that may participate in the progression of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen resistance. 10896938 Human
rala melanoma RalA does not generate filopodia in filamin-deficient human melanoma cells, whereas transfection of filamin 1 restores the functional response. 10051605 Human
ral tumours Several recent discoveries indicate that the ras genes, frequently activated to a transforming potential in some human tumours, belong to a large family that can be divided into three main branches: the first branch represented by the ras, ral and rap gen 3145021 Human
rala tumor And, consistent with a role for the RalA/PLD pathway in mitogenesis and tumor development, the dominant negative RalA mutant completely blocked tumor formation by v-Src- and v-Ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells injected subcutaneously in syngeneic mice. 10467419 Mouse
rala tumor The data presented here implicate RalA and PLD as signaling mediators for tumor formation and protease production by transformed cells. 10467419 Human
ral bladder cancer Using the median of DNA adducts (RAL, 0.3) as a cutoff point, the odds ratio for the risk of bladder cancer was 4.1 (age-adjusted; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-9.0). 9568791 Human
rala bladder cancer In particular we focus on how H-Ras, RalA/B and RhoGDI2, a regulator of Rho family members, participate in bladder cancer progression and how their participation may be related to other molecules associated with bladder cancer progression, such as epiderm 14532839 Human
ral endometrial adenocarcinoma To determine whether estrogen receptor (ER) ligands exert nongenomic activity in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, and whether this activity affects transcription and DNA synthesis, we challenged human Ishikawa cells with E2 or partial ER agonists 4-hydro 12488337 Human
ral carcinoma Novel emerging mechanisms of migration in carcinoma cells involving RhoC and Ral are also discussed. 12490304 Human
ral tumour The copy numbers per haploid genome of 11 protooncogenes in every tumour sample were determined: H-ras, K-ras, N-ras, c-myc, N-myc, L-myc, erbB, mos, myb, ncu (erbB-2) and ral amplifications. 2547415 Human
ral tumour The nature of haemopoietic progenitor cells (mainly erythroid) forming colonies on GC, the nature of cells providing the haemopoietic inductive microenvironment on GC, the direction of tumour progression in RAL and K-2 cells, as well as some possible appl 6944207 Human
ral human tumours Several recent discoveries indicate that the ras genes, frequently activated to a transforming potential in some human tumours, belong to a large family that can be divided into three main branches: the first branch represented by the ras, ral and rap gen 3145021 Human
ral tumors Tumors from mice treated with MPA, E(2), Tam or Ral and NMU-treated rats were analyzed and compared to that of control. 15181328 Human
ral cancer Ral GTPases: corrupting the exocyst in cancer cells. 15953551 Human
ral metastasis The Ral family of small G proteins has been implicated in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis. 16103060 Human
rala tumor In contrast to the common outcome in protease production by the different tumor promoting stimuli, fibronectin production was high in PKC-overexpressing mammary epithelial cells and it was organized into a rich fibrillar matrix, while oncogene transformed 11188928 Human
rala nsclc Importantly, CAV1 knockdown led to reduced phospho-focal adhesion kinase and RalA, but not RalB, levels in NSCLC cells. 15205342 Human
rala metastasis The small G-protein RalA stimulates metastasis of transformed cells. 15467745 Human
rala tumors Knockdown of RalA expression impeded, if not abolished, the ability of human cancer cells to form tumors. 15950903 Human
rala cancer Knockdown of RalA expression impeded, if not abolished, the ability of human cancer cells to form tumors. 15950903 Human
rala pancreatic cancers RalA was also commonly activated in a panel of cell lines from pancreatic cancers, a disease characterized by activation of Ras. 15950903 Human
rala cancer RalA and RalB: Antagonistic Relatives in Cancer Cell Migration. 16103060 Human
rala bladder carcinoma Here we analyze the separate contributions of RalA and RalB in regulating cell migration, a necessary component of the invasive phenotype, in two human cancer cell lines; UMUC-3, a bladder carcinoma line, and the prostate carcinoma line, DU145. 16103060 Human
rala prostate carcinoma Here we analyze the separate contributions of RalA and RalB in regulating cell migration, a necessary component of the invasive phenotype, in two human cancer cell lines; UMUC-3, a bladder carcinoma line, and the prostate carcinoma line, DU145. 16103060 Human
rala cancer Here we analyze the separate contributions of RalA and RalB in regulating cell migration, a necessary component of the invasive phenotype, in two human cancer cell lines; UMUC-3, a bladder carcinoma line, and the prostate carcinoma line, DU145. 16103060 Human
rala cancer In summary, we present the first demonstration that despite their significant sequence homology, RalA and RalB have nonoverlapping and opposing functions in cancer cell migration but overlapping functions in cell growth. 16103060 Human
ras related transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder Ras related oncogene protein as a tumor marker in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. 3550156 Human
ras related tumor Ras related oncogene protein as a tumor marker in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. 3550156 Human
ras related cancer Therefore, monitoring of GTP-loaded conformation of Ras related proteins could be utilised in cancer diagnosis. 10234739 Human
ral pheochromocytoma Isolation of cDNA clones and tissue expression of rat ral A and ral B GTP-binding proteins. cDNA clones encoding the low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins ral A (951 bp) and ral B (2073 bp), including the entire coding region (618 bp), were isolated f 7687439 Rat
ral mds Moreover, fMLP-induced activation of the GTPase Ral was also normal in neutrophils from MDS patients. 15107457 Human
rala human tumor In this chapter, we describe the use of retrovirus-based RNA interference approaches to study the functions of Ras and Ras effectors (Raf, RalA, RalB, and Tiam1) in the growth of pancreatic carcinoma and other human tumor cell lines. 16757353 Human
rala pancreatic carcinoma In this chapter, we describe the use of retrovirus-based RNA interference approaches to study the functions of Ras and Ras effectors (Raf, RalA, RalB, and Tiam1) in the growth of pancreatic carcinoma and other human tumor cell lines. 16757353 Human
ral cancer The Metastasis-Associated Gene CD24 Is Regulated by Ral GTPase and Is a Mediator of Cell Proliferation and Survival in Human Cancer. 16488989 Human
ral cancer Ral GTPases are important mediators of transformation, tumorigenesis, and cancer progression. 16488989 Human
ral bladder carcinoma We recently identified the metastasis-associated protein CD24, a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol-linked surface protein, as a downstream target of Ral signaling by profiling the expression of RalA/B-depleted bladder carcinoma cells. 16488989 Human
rala tumor The Ras family GTPases RalA and RalB have been defined as central components of the regulatory machinery supporting tumor initiation and progression. 16382162 Human
rala bladder carcinoma We recently identified the metastasis-associated protein CD24, a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol-linked surface protein, as a downstream target of Ral signaling by profiling the expression of RalA/B-depleted bladder carcinoma cells. 16488989 Human
ral oncogenic These results demonstrate that activation of Ral-GDS and thus its target, Ral, constitutes a distinct downstream signaling pathway from RasH that potentiates oncogenic transformation. 8631302 Human
ral tumorigenesis Biochemical experiments indicate that Rgr has GTP/GDP exchange activity for Ral, providing evidence that this pathway is associated with tumorigenesis. 9178890 Human
ral tumorigenesis The linkage between the Ral pathway and tumorigenesis by a molecule in the Ral-GDS gene family (Ral-GDS being a known effector for Ras) will open the way for the characterization of this pathway and provide an important tool to understand its biological f 9178890 Human
ral oncogenic The small GTPase Ral is a Ras-like GTPase [1] that has been implicated in growth-factor-induced and Ras-induced DNA synthesis [2-4], and Ras-induced oncogenic transformation [3,5]. 9550702 Human
ral oncogenic Although oncogenic Ras is able to activate these Ral GEFs [2,5,10], it is unknown whether growth factors can induce the activation of Ral and, if so, which small GTPase is involved in this process. 9550702 Human
ral oncogene The Rgr oncogene (homologous to RalGDS) induces transformation and gene expression by activating Ras, Ral and Rho mediated pathways. 10851075 Human
ral oncogene The effects of the 5'-truncated Rgr oncogene, a previously shown specific guanine exchange factor for Ral in vitro, in stimulating proliferation, cell transformation and gene expression were investigated. 10851075 Human
ral oncoprotein Ral has been shown to act downstream of Ras oncoprotein. 11162603 Human
ral oncogenic To test the involvement of Ral in Ras-induced anchorage-independent growth, we ectopically expressed Ral mutants in HT1080 cells, whose ability to grow in the absence of anchorage depends on the oncogenic mutation of N-ras. 11162603 Human
ral metastasis Signal pathways which promote invasion and metastasis: critical and distinct contributions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Ral-specific guanine exchange factor pathways. 11486034 Human
ral human tumour RAL GTPases are linchpin modulators of human tumour-cell proliferation and survival. 12856001 Human
ral oncogenic These observations establish RAL GTPases as crucial components of the cellular machinery that are exploited by factors that drive oncogenic transformation. 12856001 Human
ral oncogenic Ral GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of dynamic cellular processes including proliferation, oncogenic transformation, actin-cytoskeletal dynamics, endocytosis, and exocytosis. 14525976 Human
ral oncogenic In mammals, Ral (Ras-like) GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of several cellular key processes such as oncogenic transformation, endocytosis, and actin-cytoskeleton dynamics. 15363942 Human
ral tumorigenesis The Ral family of small G proteins has been implicated in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis. 16103060 Human
ral oncogenic Although it is known that Ral proteins mediate oncogenic Ras signaling and physically and functionally interact with vesicle trafficking machinery, their mechanistic contribution to oncogenic transformation is unknown. 16382162 Human
ral tumorigenesis Ral GTPases are important mediators of transformation, tumorigenesis, and cancer progression. 16488989 Human
ral tumorigenesis Ral is a multifunctional small GTPase involved in tumorigenesis and in controlling intracellular membrane trafficking. 16781882 Human
ral oncogenic These results show that the translational machinery is linked to tumor suppression as well as cell-proliferative pathways and that the reestablishment of cell death pathways by activation of the Ral oncogenic program provides a means for selective therape 16894031 Human
ral tumor These results show that the translational machinery is linked to tumor suppression as well as cell-proliferative pathways and that the reestablishment of cell death pathways by activation of the Ral oncogenic program provides a means for selective therape 16894031 Human
ral tumor Ral GTPase activity is a crucial cell-autonomous factor supporting tumor initiation and progression. 17000765 Human
ral tumor metastasis CONCLUSIONS: RalA function is critical to tumor initiation, whereas RalB function is more important for tumor metastasis in the tested cell lines and thus argues for critical, but distinct, roles of Ral proteins during the dynamic progression of Ras-drive 17174914 Human
ral tumor CONCLUSIONS: RalA function is critical to tumor initiation, whereas RalB function is more important for tumor metastasis in the tested cell lines and thus argues for critical, but distinct, roles of Ral proteins during the dynamic progression of Ras-drive 17174914 Human
ral pancreatic cancers CONCLUSIONS: RalA function is critical to tumor initiation, whereas RalB function is more important for tumor metastasis in the tested cell lines and thus argues for critical, but distinct, roles of Ral proteins during the dynamic progression of Ras-drive 17174914 Human
rala oncogenic The oncogenic stimulus of v-Src and v-Ras results in the activation of PLD, which is dependent upon the monomeric GTPase RalA. 10467419 Human
rala oncogenic We have therefore investigated whether RalA plays a role in uPA and MMP overproduction that is observed in response to oncogenic signals. 10467419 Human
rala oncogene In contrast to the common outcome in protease production by the different tumor promoting stimuli, fibronectin production was high in PKC-overexpressing mammary epithelial cells and it was organized into a rich fibrillar matrix, while oncogene transformed 11188928 Human
rala tumorigenesis Both v-Src and v-Ras as well as v-Raf activate phospholipase D through the small GTPase, RalA, an important mediator of transformation and tumorigenesis in vivo. 11350063 Human
rala oncogenic We have therefore investigated whether RalA is involved in the downregulation of FN and overproduction of CD44 upon oncogenic transformation. 11350063 Human
rala oncogenic PLD1 is a downstream target of the Ras/RalA GTPase cascade implicated in mitogenic and oncogenic signaling. 11741292 Human
rala oncogenic We found that 3 major pathways are abnormally activated by oncogenic H-ras: Raf/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), phosphatidyl inositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt, and RalGEF/RalA. 15166036 Human
rala oncogenic Additionally, expression of oncogenic Ras alleviates transcriptional repression by ZONAB in a RalA-dependent manner. 15592429 Human
rala tumorigenesis Activation of RalA is critical for Ras-induced tumorigenesis of human cells. 15950903 Human
rala oncogenic We now show that the oncogenic activity of these proteins is propagated by activation of one RalGEF substrate, RalA, but blunted by another closely related substrate, RalB, and that the oncogenic signaling requires binding of the RalBP1 and exocyst subuni 15950903 Human
rala tumorigenesis Activation of RalA signaling thus appears to be a critical step in Ras-induced transformation and tumorigenesis of human cells. 15950903 Human
rala mpnst We show that FTS treatment shortened the relatively long duration of Ras activation and signaling to extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, and RalA in all NF1-deficient MPNST cell lines (NF1 cells) to that observed in a non-NF1, normally expressing 17000690 Human
rala human pancreatic carcinoma Divergent roles for RalA and RalB in malignant growth of human pancreatic carcinoma cells. 17174914 Human
rala pancreatic cancers In the present study, we determined whether RalA and RalB also had divergent roles in promoting the aberrant growth of pancreatic cancers, which are characterized by the highest occurrence of Ras mutations. 17174914 Human
rala human pancreatic cancer RESULTS: We now show that inhibition of RalA but not RalB expression universally reduced the transformed and tumorigenic growth in a panel of ten genetically diverse human pancreatic cancer cell lines. 17174914 Human
rala pancreatic tumor Moreover, both RalA and RalB were more commonly activated in pancreatic tumor tissue than other Ras effector pathways. 17174914 Human
rala tumor metastasis CONCLUSIONS: RalA function is critical to tumor initiation, whereas RalB function is more important for tumor metastasis in the tested cell lines and thus argues for critical, but distinct, roles of Ral proteins during the dynamic progression of Ras-drive 17174914 Human
rala tumor CONCLUSIONS: RalA function is critical to tumor initiation, whereas RalB function is more important for tumor metastasis in the tested cell lines and thus argues for critical, but distinct, roles of Ral proteins during the dynamic progression of Ras-drive 17174914 Human
rala pancreatic cancers CONCLUSIONS: RalA function is critical to tumor initiation, whereas RalB function is more important for tumor metastasis in the tested cell lines and thus argues for critical, but distinct, roles of Ral proteins during the dynamic progression of Ras-drive 17174914 Human
rala pheochromocytoma For this purpose stable neuroendocrine pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cell lines were generated in which the expressions of both RalA and RalB were strongly downregulated. 17202486 Human
ral human bladder cancer Expression of ral GTPases, their effectors, and activators in human bladder cancer. 17606711 Human
ral tumorigenesis PURPOSE: The Ral family of small G proteins has been implicated in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in in vitro and animal model systems; however, a systematic evaluation of the state of activation, mutation, or expression of these GTPases has not 17606711 Human
ral metastasis PURPOSE: The Ral family of small G proteins has been implicated in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in in vitro and animal model systems; however, a systematic evaluation of the state of activation, mutation, or expression of these GTPases has not 17606711 Human
ral tumor PURPOSE: The Ral family of small G proteins has been implicated in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in in vitro and animal model systems; however, a systematic evaluation of the state of activation, mutation, or expression of these GTPases has not 17606711 Human
ral human bladder cancer We determined the expression of Ral, Ral activators, and Ral effectors on the level of mRNA or protein in human bladder cancer cell lines and tissues. 17606711 Human
ral prostate cancer Loss of Ral appeared to suppress expansive growth of prostate cancer cells in bone, whereas homing and initial colonization were less affected. 17709381 Human
ral hcc We identified activation of Ras and downstream Ras effectors (ERK, AKT, and RAL) due to epigenetic silencing of inhibitors of the Ras pathway in all HCC. 17717605 Human
rala metastasis The ability of RalA to induce metastasis was demonstrated in spontaneously transformed as well as in virus transformed fibroblasts. 15467745 NA
rala pheochromocytoma In agreement with the reported role of RalA in exocytosis, the shRNA of either R-Ras or RalA was found to suppress calcium-triggered exocytosis in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. 17344481 Human
rala bladder cancer EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We determined the activation state of the RalA and RalB paralogs in 10 bladder cancer cell lines with varying Ras mutation status. 17606711 Human
rala bladder cancer We sequenced RalA and RalB cDNAs from 20 bladder cancer cell lines and functionally evaluated the mutations found. 17606711 Human
rala tumors We found overexpression of mRNAs for RalA and Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase that activates RalA, in bladder cancer (both P < 0.001), and in association with tumors of higher stage and grade. 17606711 Human
rala bladder cancer We found overexpression of mRNAs for RalA and Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase that activates RalA, in bladder cancer (both P < 0.001), and in association with tumors of higher stage and grade. 17606711 Human
rala invasive cancers We determined that RalA mRNA levels correlated significantly with protein levels (P < 0.001) and found protein overexpression of both GTPases in homogenized invasive cancers. 17606711 Human
rala carcinomas Available data sets suggest that RalA mRNA is also overexpressed in seminoma, glioblastoma, and carcinomas of the liver, pancreas, and prostate. 17606711 Human
rala glioblastoma Available data sets suggest that RalA mRNA is also overexpressed in seminoma, glioblastoma, and carcinomas of the liver, pancreas, and prostate. 17606711 Human
rala seminoma Available data sets suggest that RalA mRNA is also overexpressed in seminoma, glioblastoma, and carcinomas of the liver, pancreas, and prostate. 17606711 Human
rala subcutaneous tumor In addition, loss of RalA in the metastatic PC3 cell line inhibited bone metastasis but did not affect subcutaneous tumor growth. 17709381 Human
rala bone metastasis In addition, loss of RalA in the metastatic PC3 cell line inhibited bone metastasis but did not affect subcutaneous tumor growth. 17709381 Human
ral bladder cancer Expression profiling of Ral-depleted bladder cancer cells identifies RREB-1 as a novel transcriptional Ral effector. 17496927 Human
ral human bladder cancer Here, we studied the role of RalA and/or RalB in transcriptional regulation by combining short interfering RNA depletion of Ral with gene expression profiling via microarray in the human bladder cancer cell line, UMUC-3. 17496927 Human
ral cancer Taken together, these data strongly suggest that Ral family members mediate both common and specific transcriptional programs that are associated with human cancer and identify RREB-1 as a novel transcriptional effector of Ral. 17496927 Human
ral cancer Ral GTPases and cancer: linchpin support of the tumorigenic platform. 18219307 Human
ral tumorigenesis Here, we will focus on current developments highlighting the pivotal contribution of Ral proteins to the regulatory framework supporting tumorigenesis, and evaluate mechanistic connections between Ral effector activation and generation of this framework. 18219307 Human
ral multiple myeloma The small GTPase Ral mediates SDF-1-induced migration of B cells and multiple myeloma cells. 18227351 Human
ral dcis The data from the Ral trials also suggests that this agent appears less effective than Tam in preventing DCIS. 18497044 Human
ral cancer Small GTPases of the Ras-like (Ral) family are crucial for signalling functions in both normal and cancer cells; however, their role in a developing organism is poorly understood. 18552769 Human
rala human bladder cancer Here, we studied the role of RalA and/or RalB in transcriptional regulation by combining short interfering RNA depletion of Ral with gene expression profiling via microarray in the human bladder cancer cell line, UMUC-3. 17496927 Human
rala cancer Wild-type PP2A Abeta but not cancer-derived Abeta mutants form a complex with the small GTPase RalA. 17540176 Human
rala tumor Here we provide evidence that the Ras-like small GTPases RalA and RalB are exclusively geranylgeranylated and that inhibition of their geranylgeranylation mediates, at least in part, the effects of GGTIs on anchorage-dependent and -independent growth and 17875936 Human
rala cancer By expressing farnesylated, GGTI-resistant RalA and RalB in Cos7 cells and human pancreatic MiaPaCa2 cancer cells followed by GGTI-2417 treatment, we demonstrated that farnesylated RalB, but not RalA, confers resistance to the proapoptotic and anti-anchor 17875936 Human
rala tumor We conclude that RalA and RalB are important, functionally distinct targets for GGTI-mediated tumor apoptosis and growth inhibition. 17875936 Human
rala oncogenic A confluence of recent observations has indicted the Ras-family G-proteins RALA and RALB as key offenders in the subversion of core biological systems driving oncogenic transformation. 18219307 Human
rala oncogenic The Ras-like GTPases, RalA and RalB, are key components of the oncogenic Ras signaling network. 18413258 Human
ral metastasis Activation of the RalGEF/Ral pathway promotes prostate cancer metastasis to bone. 17709381 Human
ral prostate cancer Activation of the RalGEF/Ral pathway promotes prostate cancer metastasis to bone. 17709381 Human
rala tumor These observations identify PP2A Abeta as a tumor suppressor gene that transforms immortalized human cells by regulating the function of RalA. 17540176 Human

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